# Virginia State Standards for Science: Kindergarten

### VA.K.1. Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic: The student will conduct investigations in which: a) basic properties of objects are identified by direct observation; b) observations are made from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives; c) objects are described both pictorially and verbally; d) a set of objects is sequenced according to size; e) a set of objects is separated into two groups based on a single physical attribute; f) nonstandard units are used to measure common objects; g) a question is developed from one or more observations; h) picture graphs are constructed using 10 or fewer units; i) an unseen member in a sequence of objects is predicted; and j) unusual or unexpected results in an activity are recognized.

K.1.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to observe objects and describe their basic properties. These include color, shape (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle), size (big, little, large, small), texture (rough, smooth, hard, soft), and weight (heavy, light). 13
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.1.

K.1.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to observe an object or objects from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives. In order to accomplish this, the student should look at the object from top, bottom, front, and back. 6
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.2.

K.1.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to arrange a set of objects in sequence according to size. 4
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.3.

K.1.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to separate a set of objects into two groups based on a single physical attribute, including size, color, texture, and weight. 24
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.4.

K.1.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to construct picture graphs using 10 or fewer units. 10
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.5.

K.1.6. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to measure common objects with nonstandard units. Examples of nonstandard units include hands, pennies, and paper clips. 11
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.6.

K.1.7. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict an unseen member in a sequence of objects to complete a pattern. 6
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.7.

K.1.8. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to develop a question from one or more observations. 16
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.8.

K.1.9. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe objects both pictorially and verbally. 7
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.9.

K.1.10. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify unusual or unexpected results in an activity. 14
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.1.10.

### VA.K.2. Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic: Students will investigate and understand that humans have senses that allow one to seek, find, take in, and react or respond to information in order to learn about one's surroundings. Key concepts include a) five senses and corresponding sensing organ (taste-tongue, touch-skin, smell-nose, hearing-ears, and sight-eyes); and b) sensory descriptors (sweet, sour, bitter, salty, rough/smooth, hard/soft, cold, warm, hot, loud/soft, high/low, bright/dull)

K.2.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify and describe the five senses: taste, touch, smell, hearing, and sight. 20
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.2.1.

K.2.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to match each sensing organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin) with its associated sense. 11
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.2.2.

K.2.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to match sensory descriptors with the senses (taste: sweet, sour, bitter, salty; touch: smooth, hard, soft, cold, warm, hot; hearing: loud, soft, high, low; sight: bright, dull, color, black, and white.) 24
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.2.3.

### VA.K.3. Force, Motion, and Energy: The student will investigate and understand that magnets have an effect on some materials, make some things move without touching them, and have useful applications. Key concepts include a) attraction/nonattraction, push/pull, attract/repel, and metal/nonmetal; and b) useful applications (refrigerator magnet, can opener, magnetized screwdriver, and magnetic games).

K.3.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict and test which common objects will be attracted to magnets and which will not be attracted to magnets. 4
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.3.1.

K.3.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to classify objects as being attracted or not attracted to magnets, such as iron nail, iron-bearing paper clip, cereal, and book. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.3.2.

K.3.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to explain in their own words essential vocabulary, including the concepts of attraction/nonattraction, push/pull, attract/repel, and metal/nonmetal. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.3.3.

K.3.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify items in the home that contain a magnet or magnets, such as can openers, magnetized screwdrivers, magnetic games, and refrigerator magnets. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.3.4.

K.3.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to evaluate the importance and usefulness of magnets in the home. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.3.5.

### VA.K.4. Matter: The student will investigate and understand that the position, motion, and physical properties of an object can be described. Key concepts include a) colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple), white, and black; b) shapes (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) and forms (flexible/stiff, straight/curved); c) textures (rough/smooth) and feel (hard/soft); d) relative size and weight (big/little, large/small, heavy/light, wide/thin, long/short); and e) position (over/under, in/out, above/below, left/right) and speed (fast/slow).

K.4.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify and name eight basic colors, including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. (Indigo and violet are not required at the kindergarten level.) Black and white are not spectral colors, but students should recognize them by name. 1
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.1.

K.4.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify and name a circle, triangle, square, and rectangle. 4
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.2.

K.4.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to compare and contrast objects that are flexible, stiff, straight, and curved.

K.4.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to compare and contrast objects that are rough, smooth, hard, and soft. 1
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.4.

K.4.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to compare objects using the concepts of heavy/light, long/short, wide/thin, big/little, and large/small. 1
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.5.

K.4.6. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to measure objects, using nonstandard units. 31
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.6.

K.4.7. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify the position of an object, using position words over/under, in/out, above/below, and left/right. 2
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.7.

K.4.8. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to group objects according to their speed - fast or slow. 2
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.4.8.

### VA.K.5. Matter: The student will investigate and understand that water flows and has properties that can be observed and tested. Key concepts include a) water occurs in different states (solid, liquid, gas); b) the natural flow of water is downhill; and c) some materials float in water while others sink.

K.5.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify examples of the different states of water (solid, liquid, and gas). 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.5.1.

K.5.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to classify examples of different states of matter as solid, liquid, or gas. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.5.2.

K.5.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe the natural flow of water. 9
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.5.3.

K.5.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict where a stream of water will flow. 8
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.5.4.

K.5.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict whether items will float or sink when placed in water. Items to use include wood, metal, fruits, paper, and plastics. 8
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.5.5.

### VA.K.6. Life Processes: The student will investigate and understand basic needs and life processes of plants and animals. Key concepts include a) living things change as they grow and need food, water, and air to survive; b) plants and animals live and die (go through a life cycle); and c) offspring of plants and animals are similar but not identical to their parents and one another.

K.6.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe the life needs of animals and plants. The life needs are food, water, and air. 7
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.6.1.

K.6.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict what will happen to animals and plants if life needs are not met. 7
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.6.2.

K.6.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe some simple changes animals and plants undergo during the life cycle. For animals this may include changes in color, body covering, and overall size. For plants this may include size, presence of leaves and branches, and ability to produce flowers and fruits. 59
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.6.3.

K.6.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to compare and contrast young plants and animals with their parents, using pictures and/or live organisms. 59
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.6.4.

### VA.K.7. Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems: The student will investigate and understand that shadows occur when light is blocked by an object. Key concepts include a) shadows occur in nature when sunlight is blocked by an object; and b) shadows can be produced by blocking artificial light sources.

K.7.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify a shadow or variety of shadows. 3
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.7.1.

K.7.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe how to make a shadow. 3
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.7.2.

K.7.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify and describe sources of light - sun, electric lights, and flashlights - that can produce shadows. 4
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.7.3.

K.7.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to match objects with the shadow they would create. 4
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.7.4.

K.7.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to analyze how shadows change as the direction of the light source changes. 4
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.7.5.

### VA.K.8. Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change: The student will investigate and understand simple patterns in his/her daily life. Key concepts include a) weather observations; b) the shapes and forms of many common natural objects including seeds, cones, and leaves; c) animal and plant growth; and d) home and school routines.

K.8.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to observe and identify daily weather conditions - sunny, rainy, cloudy, snowy, windy, warm, hot, cool, and cold. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.1.

K.8.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict daily weather based on basic observable conditions. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.2.

K.8.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to chart daily weather conditions. 5
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.3.

K.8.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify simple patterns in natural objects - veins in a leaf, spiral patterns in cones, shapes and colors of common seeds.

K.8.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify and describe patterns in their daily schedule at home. 7
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.5.

K.8.6. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify and describe patterns in their daily schedule at school. 16
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.6.

K.8.7. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to distinguish between the patterns in home activities and those in school activities. 17
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.7.

K.8.8. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe how animals and plants change as they grow. (Related to K.6.) 59
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.8.8.

### VA.K.9. Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change: The student will investigate and understand that change occurs over time, and rates may be fast or slow. Key concepts include a) natural and human- made things may change over time; and b) changes can be noted and measured.

K.9.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify some changes that people experience over time - e.g., height, weight, and color of hair. 1
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.9.1.

K.9.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict how their own height and weight will change over the school year. 1
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.9.2.

K.9.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe how people cause things to change - e.g., demolition of buildings, construction of buildings, cutting down trees, planting trees, and building highways. 16
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.9.3.

K.9.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe how things change naturally. This includes seasonal changes, the growth in seeds and common plants, common animals, including the butterfly, and the weather. 77
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.9.4.

K.9.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify examples of fast changes and slow changes. Slow changes should be the kinds of familiar changes that occur over weeks, months, or seasons. Students are not responsible for long-term changes. 77
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.9.5.

### VA.K.10. Resources: The student will investigate and understand that materials can be reused, recycled, and conserved. Key concepts include a) materials and objects can be used over and over again; b) everyday materials can be recycled; and c) water and energy conservation at home and in school helps preserve resources for future use.

K.10.1. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to give examples of objects, such as paper, plastic containers, and glass containers, that can be recycled. 13
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.10.1.

K.10.2. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to identify materials that can be reused. 8
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.10.2.

K.10.3. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe the difference between recycle and reuse. 15
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.10.3.

K.10.4. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to name ways to conserve water and energy. 15
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.10.4.

K.10.5. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to describe how to recycle a given material - paper, oil, aluminum, glass and plastics. 17
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.10.5.

K.10.6. Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes: Students should be able to predict what would happen if recycling and reusing were not practiced. 15
Suggested Titles for Virginia Science State Standard K.10.6.

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