Indiana State Standards for Science: Grade 9
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IN.B.1. Biology I: Principles of Biology: Students work with the concepts, principles, and theories that enable them to understand the living environment. They recognize that living organisms are made of cells or cell products that consist of the same components as all other matter, involve the same kinds of transformations of energy, and move using the same kinds of basic forces. Students investigate, through laboratories and fieldwork, how living things function and how they interact with one another and their environment.
B.1.1. Molecules and Cells: Recognize that and explain how the many cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. Understand that different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells and are influenced by the cell's environment and past history.
B.1.2. Molecules and Cells: Explain that every cell is covered by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell. Recognize that in all but quite primitive cells, a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape. In addition, understand that flagella and/or cilia may allow some Protista, some Monera, and some animal cells to move.
B.1.3. Molecules and Cells: Know and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and movement. In addition to these basic cellular functions common to all cells, understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.
B.1.4. Molecules and Cells: Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
B.1.5. Molecules and Cells: Demonstrate that most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and acidity. Note that extreme changes may harm cells, modifying the structure of their protein molecules and therefore, some possible functions.
B.1.6. Molecules and Cells: Show that a living cell is composed mainly of a small number of chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur). Recognize that carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.
B.1.7. Molecules and Cells: Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones.
B.1.8. Molecules and Cells: Understand and describe that all growth and development is a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.
B.1.9. Molecules and Cells: Recognize and describe that both living and non-living things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.
B.1.10. Molecules and Cells: Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds as well.
B.1.11. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Describe that through biogenesis all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.
B.1.12. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Compare and contrast the form and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
B.1.13. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.
B.1.14. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.
B.1.15. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Understand and explain that, in biological systems, structure and function must be considered together.
B.1.16. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complexing and interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.
B.1.17. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Understand that and describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life and explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions, as well as the presence of disease agents.
B.1.18. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.
B.1.19. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.
B.1.20. Developmental and Organismal Biology: Recognize that and describe how the human immune system is designed to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.
B.1.21. Genetics: Understand and explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.
B.1.22. Genetics: Understand and explain the genetic basis for Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.
B.1.23. Genetics: Understand that and describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it, and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
B.1.24. Genetics: Explain that gene mutations can be caused by such things as radiation and chemicals. Understand that when they occur in sex cells, the mutations can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only.
B.1.25. Genetics: Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division, called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.
B.1.26. Genetics: Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.
B.1.27. Genetics: Explain that the similarity of human DNA sequences and the resulting similarity in cell chemistry and anatomy identify human beings as a unique species, different from all others. Likewise, understand that every other species has its own characteristic DNA sequence.
B.1.28. Genetics: Illustrate that the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents. Recognize that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.
B.1.29. Genetics: Understand that and explain how the actions of genes, patterns of inheritance, and the reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life, and give examples of how inherited characteristics can be observed at molecular and whole-organism levels (in structure, chemistry, or behavior).
B.1.30. Evolution: Understand and explain that molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.
B.1.31. Evolution: Describe how natural selection provides the following mechanism for evolution: Some variation in heritable characteristics exists within every species, and some of these characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. Also understand that the proportion of individuals in the population that have advantageous characteristics will increase.
B.1.32. Evolution: Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments, and discuss how natural selection provides scientific explanation for the history of life on earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.
B.1.33. Evolution: Describe how life on Earth is thought to have begun as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago. Note that during the first 2 billion years, only single-cell microorganisms existed, but once cells with nuclei developed about a billion years ago, increasingly complex multicellular organisms evolved.
B.1.34. Evolution: Explain that evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future. Recognize, however, that evolution does not necessitate long-term progress in some set direction.
B.1.36. Evolution: Trace the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool, such as genetic drift and isolation of sub-populations.
B.1.37. Ecology: Explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials. Recognize, therefore, that human activities and technology can change the flow and reduce the fertility of the land.
B.1.38. Ecology: Understand and explain the significance of the introduction of species, such as zebra mussels, into American waterways, and describe the consequent harm to native species and the environment in general.
B.1.39. Ecology: Describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years. Understand that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.
B.1.40. Ecology: Understand and explain that like many complex systems, ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium. However, also understand that ecosystems can always change with climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution.
B.1.41. Ecology: Recognize that and describe how human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Note that human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.
B.1.42. Ecology: Realize and explain that at times, the environmental conditions are such that plants and marine organisms grow faster than decomposers can recycle them back to the environment. Understand that layers of energy-rich organic material thus laid down have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying earth. Further understand that by burning these fossil fuels, people are passing most of the stored energy back into the environment as heat and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.
B.1.43. Ecology: Understand that and describe how organisms are influenced by a particular combination of living and non-living components of the environment.
B.1.44. Ecology: Describe the flow of matter, nutrients, and energy within ecosystems.
B.1.45. Ecology: Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of the way organisms develop within ecosystems.
B.1.46. Ecology: Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.
B.1.47. Ecology: Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time.
IN.B.2. Biology I: Historical Perspectives of Biology: Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that these ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that these ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that these ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.
B.2.1. Explain that prior to the studies of Charles Darwin, the most widespread belief was that all known species were created at the same time and remained unchanged throughout history. Note that some scientists at the time believed that features an individual acquired during a lifetime could be passed on to its offspring, and the species could thereby gradually change to fit an environment better.
B.2.2. Explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring. Note that some of these characteristics were advantageous in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the offspring would also inherit and pass on those advantages, and over generations the aggregation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.
B.2.3. Describe that the quick success of Darwin's book Origin of Species, published in 1859, came from the clear and understandable argument it made, including the comparison of natural selection to the selective breeding of animals in wide use at the time, and from the massive array of biological and fossil evidence it assembled to support the argument.
B.2.4. Explain that after the publication of Origin of Species, biological evolution was supported by the rediscovery of the genetics experiments of an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, by the identification of genes and how they are sorted in reproduction, and by the discovery that the genetic code found in DNA is the same for almost all organisms.
IN.C.1. Chemistry I: Principles of Chemistry: Students begin to conceptualize the general structure of the atom and the roles played by the main parts of the atom in determining the properties of materials. They investigate, through such methods as laboratory work, the nature of chemical changes and the role of energy in those changes.
C.1.1. Properties of Matter: Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures based on physical properties such as density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.
C.1.2. Properties of Matter: Determine the properties and quantities of matter such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, color, numbers of moles, and pH (calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration), and designate these properties as either extensive or intensive.
C.1.3. Properties of Matter: Recognize indicators of chemical changes such as temperature change, the production of a gas, the production of a precipitate, or a color change.
C.1.4. Properties of Matter: Describe solutions in terms of their degree of saturation.
C.1.5. Properties of Matter: Describe solutions in appropriate concentration units (be able to calculate these units) such as molarity, percent by mass or volume, parts per million (ppm), or parts per billion (ppb).
C.1.6. Properties of Matter: Predict formulas of stable ionic compounds based on charge balance of stable ions.
C.1.7. Properties of Matter: Use appropriate nomenclature when naming compounds.
C.1.8. Properties of Matter: Use formulas and laboratory investigations to classify substances as metal or nonmetal, ionic or molecular, acid or base, and organic or inorganic.
C.1.9. The Nature of Chemical Change: Describe chemical reactions with balanced chemical equations.
C.1.10. The Nature of Chemical Change: Recognize and classify reactions of various types such as oxidation-reduction.
C.1.11. The Nature of Chemical Change: Predict products of simple reaction types including acid/base, electron transfer, and precipitation.
C.1.12. The Nature of Chemical Change: Demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through laboratory investigations.
C.1.13. The Nature of Chemical Change: Use the principle of conservation of mass to make calculations related to chemical reactions. Calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.
C.1.14. The Nature of Chemical Change: Use Avogadro's law to make mass-volume calculations for simple chemical reactions.
C.1.15. The Nature of Chemical Change: Given a chemical equation, calculate the mass, gas volume, and/or number of moles needed to produce a given gas volume, mass, and/or number of moles of product.
C.1.16. The Nature of Chemical Change: Calculate the percent composition by mass of a compound or mixture when given the formula.
C.1.17. The Nature of Chemical Change: Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between molarity, volume, and number of moles of a solute in a solution.
C.1.18. The Nature of Chemical Change: Prepare a specified volume of a solution of given molarity.
C.1.19. The Nature of Chemical Change: Use titration data to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.
C.1.20. The Nature of Chemical Change: Predict how a reaction rate will be quantitatively affected by changes of concentration.
C.1.21. The Nature of Chemical Change: Predict how changes in temperature, surface area, and the use of catalysts will qualitatively affect the rate of a reaction.
C.1.22. The Nature of Chemical Change: Use oxidation states to recognize electron transfer reactions and identify the substance(s) losing and gaining electrons in an electron transfer reaction.
C.1.23. The Nature of Chemical Change: Write a rate law using a chemical equation.
C.1.24. The Nature of Chemical Change: Recognize and describe nuclear changes.
C.1.25. The Nature of Chemical Change: Recognize the importance of chemical processes in industrial and laboratory settings, e.g., electroplating, electrolysis, the operation of voltaic cells, and such important applications as the refining of aluminum.
C.1.26. The Structure of Matter: Describe physical changes and properties of matter through sketches and descriptions of the involved materials.
C.1.27. The Structure of Matter: Describe chemical changes and reactions using sketches and descriptions of the reactants and products.
C.1.28. The Structure of Matter: Explain that chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.
C.1.29. The Structure of Matter: Describe dynamic equilibrium.
C.1.30. The Structure of Matter: Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the gas laws. Apply the gas laws to relations between pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
C.1.31. The Structure of Matter: Use kinetic molecular theory to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature (Solve problems using pV=nRT).
C.1.32. The Structure of Matter: Describe the possible subatomic particles within an atom or ion.
C.1.33. The Structure of Matter: Use an element's location in the Periodic Table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.
C.1.34. The Structure of Matter: Use the Periodic Table to compare attractions that atoms have for their electrons and explain periodic properties, such as atomic size, based on these attractions.
C.1.35. The Structure of Matter: Infer and explain physical properties of substances, such as melting points, boiling points, and solubility, based on the strength of molecular attractions.
C.1.36. The Structure of Matter: Describe the nature of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds, and give examples of how they contribute to the formation of various types of compounds.
C.1.37. The Structure of Matter: Describe that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's relationship (E=hv).
C.1.38. The Nature of Energy and Change: Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat.
C.1.39. The Nature of Energy and Change: Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.
C.1.40. The Nature of Energy and Change: Classify chemical reactions and/or phase changes as exothermic or endothermic.
C.1.41. The Nature of Energy and Change: Describe the role of light, heat, and electrical energies in physical, chemical, and nuclear changes.
C.1.42. The Nature of Energy and Change: Describe that the energy release per gram of material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E=mc2) is small but significant in nuclear reactions.
C.1.43. The Nature of Energy and Change: Calculate the amount of radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half lives have passed.
C.1.44. The Basic Structures and Reactions of Organic Chemicals: Convert between formulas and names of common organic compounds.
C.1.45. The Basic Structures and Reactions of Organic Chemicals: Recognize common functional groups and polymers when given chemical formulas and names.
IN.C.2. Chemistry I: Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, students understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that these ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that these ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that these ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.
C.2.1. Explain that Antoine Lavoisier invented a whole new field of science based on a theory of materials, physical laws, and quantitative methods, with the conservation of matter at its core. Recognize that he persuaded a generation of scientists that his approach accounted for the experimental results better than other chemical systems.
C.2.2. Describe how Lavoisier's system for naming substances and describing their
C.2.3. Explain that John Dalton's modernization of the ancient Greek ideas of element,
C.2.4. Explain how Frederich Wohler's synthesis of the simple organic compound urea from inorganic substances made it clear that living organisms carry out chemical processes not fundamentally different from inorganic chemical processes. Describe how this discovery led to the development of the huge field of organic chemistry, the industries based on it, and eventually to the field of biochemistry.
C.2.5. Explain how Arrhenius's discovery of the nature of ionic solutions contributed to the understanding of a broad class of chemical reactions.
C.2.6. Explain that the appreciation of the laws of quantum mechanics to chemistry by Linus Pauling and others made possible an understanding of chemical reactions on the atomic level.
C.2.7. Describe how the discovery of the structure of DNA by James D. Watson and Francis Crick made it possible to interpret the genetic code on the basis of a sequence of 'letters'.
IN.ES.1. Earth Science: Principles of Earth and Space Science: Students investigate, through laboratory and fieldwork, the universe, the Earth, and the processes that shape the Earth. They understand that the Earth operates as a collection of interconnected systems that may be changing or may be in equilibrium. Students connect the concepts of energy, matter, conservation, and gravitation to the Earth, solar system, and universe. Students utilize knowledge of the materials and processes of the Earth, planets, and stars in the context of the scales of time and size.
ES.1.1. The Universe: Understand and discuss the nebular theory concerning the formation of solar systems. Include in the discussion the roles of planetesimals and protoplanets.
ES.1.2. The Universe: Differentiate between the different types of stars found on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Compare and contrast the evolution of stars of different masses. Understand and discuss the basics of the fusion processes that are the source of energy of stars.
ES.1.3. The Universe: Compare and contrast the differences in size, temperature, and age between our sun and other stars.
ES.1.4. The Universe: Describe Hubble's law. Identify and understand that the 'Big Bang' theory is the most widely accepted theory explaining the formation of the universe.
ES.1.5. The Universe: Understand and explain the relationship between planetary systems, stars, multiple-star systems, star clusters, galaxies, and galactic groups in the universe.
ES.1.6. The Universe: Discuss how manned and unmanned space vehicles can be used to increase our knowledge and understanding of the universe.
ES.1.7. The Universe: Describe the characteristics and motions of the various kinds of objects in our solar system, including planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. Explain that Kepler's laws determine the orbits of the planets.
ES.1.8. The Universe: Discuss the role of sophisticated technology such as telescopes, computers, space probes, and particle accelerators in making computer simulations and mathematical models in order to form a scientific account of the universe.
ES.1.9. The Universe: Recognize and explain that the concept of conservation of energy is at the heart of advances in fields as diverse as the study of nuclear particles and the study of the origin of the universe.
ES.1.10. The Earth: Recognize and describe that the earth sciences address planet-wide interacting systems, including the oceans, the air, the solid Earth, and life on Earth, as well as interactions with the Solar System.
ES.1.11. The Earth: Examine the structure, composition, and function of the Earth's atmosphere. Include the role of living organisms in the cycling of atmospheric gases.
ES.1.12. The Earth: Describe the role of photosynthetic plants in changing the Earth's atmosphere.
ES.1.13. The Earth: Explain the importance of heat transfer between and within the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans.
ES.1.14. The Earth: Understand and explain the role of differential heating and the role of the Earth's rotation on the movement of air around the planet.
ES.1.15. The Earth: Understand and describe the origin, life cycle, behavior, and prediction of weather systems.
ES.1.16. The Earth: Investigate the causes of severe weather, and propose appropriate safety measures that can be taken in the event of severe weather.
ES.1.17. The Earth: Describe the development and dynamics of climatic changes over time, such as the cycles of glaciation.
ES.1.18. The Earth: Demonstrate the possible effects of atmospheric changes brought on by things such as acid rain, smoke, volcanic dust, greenhouse gases, and ozone depletion.
ES.1.19. The Earth: Identify and discuss the effects of gravity on the waters of the Earth. Include both the flow of streams and the movement of tides.
ES.1.20. The Earth: Describe the relationship among ground water, surface water, and glacial systems.
ES.1.21. The Earth: Identify the various processes that are involved in the water cycle.
ES.1.22. The Earth: Compare the properties of rocks and minerals and their uses.
ES.1.23. Processes That Shape The Earth: Explain motions, transformations, and locations of materials in the Earth's lithosphere and interior. For example, describe the movement of the plates that make up the crust of the earth and the resulting formation of earthquakes, volcanoes, trenches, and mountains.
ES.1.24. Processes That Shape The Earth: Understand and discuss continental drift, sea-floor spreading, and plate tectonics. Include evidence that supports the movement of the plates such as magnetic stripes on the ocean floor, fossil evidence on separate continents, and the continuity of geological features.
ES.1.25. Processes That Shape The Earth: Investigate and discuss the origin of various landforms, such as mountains and rivers, and how they affect and are affected by human activities.
ES.1.26. Processes That Shape The Earth: Differentiate among the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation of materials, deposition, and soil formation.
ES.1.27. Processes That Shape The Earth: Illustrate the various processes that are involved in the rock cycle, and discuss how the total amount of material stays the same through formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation.
ES.1.28. Processes That Shape The Earth: Discuss geologic evidence, including fossils and radioactive dating, in relation to the Earth's past.
ES.1.29. Processes That Shape The Earth: Recognize and explain that in geologic change, the present arises from the materials of the past in ways that can be explained according to the same physical and chemical laws.
IN.ES.2. Earth Science: Historical Perspectives of Earth and Space Science: Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that the ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that the ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that the ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.
ES.2.1. Understand and explain that Claudius Ptolemy, an astronomer living in the second century A.D., devised a powerful mathematical model of the universe based on constant motion in perfect circles and circles on circles. Further understand that with the model, he was able to predict the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and even of the irregular 'wandering stars' now called planets.
ES.2.2. Understand that and describe how in the 16th century the Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus suggested that all those same motions outlined by Ptolemy could be explained by imagining that the earth was turning on its axis once a day and orbiting around the sun once a year. Note that this explanation was rejected by nearly everyone because it violated common sense and required the universe to be unbelievably large. Also understand that Copernicus's ideas flew in the face of belief, universally held at the time, that the Earth was at the center of the universe.
ES.2.3. Understand that and describe how Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer who lived at about the same time as Galileo, used the unprecedented precise observational data of the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. Know that Kepler showed mathematically that Copernicus's idea of a sun-centered system worked better than any other system if uniform circular motion was replaced with variable-speed, but predictable, motion along off-center ellipses.
ES.2.4. Explain that by using the newly invented telescope to study the sky, Galileo made many discoveries that supported the ideas of Copernicus. Recognize that it was Galileo who found the moons of Jupiter, sunspots, craters and mountains on the moon, the phases of Venus, and many more stars than were visible to the unaided eye.
ES.2.5. Explain that the idea, that the Earth might be vastly older than most people believed, made little headway in science until the work of Lyell and Hutton.
ES.2.6. Describe that early in the 20th century the German scientist, Alfred Wegener, reintroduced the idea of moving continents, adding such evidence as the underwater shapes of the continents, the similarity of life forms and land forms in corresponding parts of Africa and South America, and the increasing separation of Greenland and Europe. Also know that very few contemporary scientists adopted his theory because Wegener was unable to propose a plausible mechanism for motion.
ES.2.7. Explain that the theory of plate tectonics was finally accepted by the scientific community in the 1960s when further evidence had accumulated in support of it. Understand that the theory was seen to provide an explanation for a diverse array of seemingly unrelated phenomena, and there was a scientifically sound physical explanation of how such movement could occur.
IN.ENV.1. Environmental Science: Principles of Environmental Science: Students investigate, through laboratory and fieldwork, the concepts of environmental systems, populations, natural resources, and environmental hazards.
Env.1.1. Environmental Systems: Know and describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years. Consider as an example the ecosystem of the Great Plains prior to the advent of the horse in Native American Plains societies, from then until the advent of agriculture, and well into the present.
Env.1.2. Environmental Systems: Understand and describe that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.
Env.1.3. Environmental Systems: Understand and explain that ecosystems have cyclic fluctuations such as seasonal changes or changes in populations as a result of migrations.
Env.1.4. Environmental Systems: Understand and explain that human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems, and give examples of how human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter ecosystems.
Env.1.5. Environmental Systems: Explain how the size and rate of growth of the human population in any location is affected by economic, political, religious, technological, and environmental factors, some of which are influenced by the size and rate of growth of the population.
Env.1.6. Environmental Systems: Describe and give examples about how the decisions of one generation both provide and limit the range of possibilities open to the next generation.
Env.1.7. Environmental Systems: Recognize and explain that in evolutionary change, the present arises from the materials of the past and in ways that can be explained, such as the formation of soil from rocks and dead organic matter.
Env.1.8. Environmental Systems: Recognize and describe the difference between systems in equilibrium and systems in disequilibrium.
Env.1.9. Environmental Systems: Diagram the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water.
Env.1.10. Environmental Systems: Identify and measure biological, chemical, and physical factors within an ecosystem.
Env.1.11. Environmental Systems: Locate, identify, and explain the role of the major earth biomes and discuss how the abiotic and biotic factors interact within these ecosystems.
Env.1.12. Environmental Systems: Explain the process of succession, both primary and secondary, in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Env.1.13. Flow of Matter and Energy: Understand and describe how layers of energy rich organic material have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying earth. Recognize that by burning these fossil fuels, people are passing stored energy back into the environment as heat and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.
Env.1.14. Flow of Matter and Energy: Recognize and explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle organic materials from the remains of dead organisms.
Env.1.15. Flow of Matter and Energy: Describe how the chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways.
Env.1.16. Flow of Matter and Energy: Cite examples of how all fuels have advantages and disadvantages that society must question when considering the trade-offs among them, such as how energy use contributes to the rising standard of living in the industrially developing nations. However, explain that this energy use also leads to more rapid depletion of the earth's energy resources and to environmental risks associated with the use of fossil and nuclear fuels.
Env.1.17. Flow of Matter and Energy: Describe how decisions to slow the depletion of energy sources through efficient technology can be made at many levels, from personal to national, and they always involve trade-offs of economic costs and social values.
Env.1.18. Flow of Matter and Energy: Illustrate the flow of energy through various trophic levels of food chains and food webs within an ecosystem. Describe how each link in a food web stores some energy in newly made structures and how much of the energy is dissipated into the environment as heat. Understand that a continual input of energy from sunlight is needed to keep the process going.
Env.1.19. Populations: Demonstrate and explain how the factors such as birth rate, death rate, and migration rate determine growth rates of populations.
Env.1.20. Populations: Demonstrate how resources, such as food supply, influence populations.
Env.1.21. Natural Resources: Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources, and compare and contrast the pros and cons of using non-renewable resources.
Env.1.22. Natural Resources: Demonstrate a knowledge of the distribution of natural resources in the U.S. and the world, and explain how natural resources influence relationships among nations.
Env.1.23. Natural Resources: Recognize and describe the role of natural resources in providing the raw materials for an industrial society.
Env.1.24. Natural Resources: Give examples of the various forms and uses of fossil fuels and nuclear energy in our society.
Env.1.25. Natural Resources: Recognize and describe alternative sources of energy provided by water, the atmosphere, and the sun.
Env.1.26. Natural Resources: Identify specific tools and technologies used to adapt and alter environments and natural resources in order to meet human physical and cultural needs.
Env.1.27. Natural Resources: Understand and describe the concept of integrated natural resource management and the values of managing natural resources as an ecological unit.
Env.1.28. Natural Resources: Understand and describe the concept and the importance of natural and human recycling in conserving our natural resources.
Env.1.29. Natural Resources: Recognize and describe important environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act.
Env.1.30. Environmental Hazards: Describe how agricultural technology requires trade-offs between increased production and environmental harm and between efficient production and social values.
Env.1.31. Environmental Hazards: Understand and explain that waste management includes considerations of quantity, safety, degradability, and cost. Understand also that waste management requires social and technological innovations because waste-disposal problems are political and economic as well as technical.
Env.1.32. Environmental Hazards: Understand and describe how nuclear reactions release energy without the combustion products of burning fuels, but that the radioactivity of fuels and by-products poses other risks which may last for thousands of years.
Env.1.33. Environmental Hazards: Identify natural earth hazards, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, and identify the regions in which they occur as well as the short term and long term effects on the environment and on people.
Env.1.34. Environmental Hazards: Differentiate between natural pollution and pollution caused by humans and give examples of each.
Env.1.35. Environmental Hazards: Compare and contrast the beneficial and harmful effects of an environmental stressor such as herbicides and pesticides on plants and animals. Give examples of secondary effects on other environmental components.
IN.ENV.2. Environmental Science: Historical Perspectives of Environmental Science: Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that the ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that the ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that the ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.
Env.2.1. Explain that Rachael Carson's book, Silent Spring, explained how pesticides were causing serious pollution and killing many organisms. Understand that it was the first time anyone had publicly shown how poisons affect anything in nature. Note in particular that the book detailed how the pesticide DDT had gotten into the food chain. Understand that as a result of Silent Spring, there are now hundreds of national, state, and local laws that regulate pesticides.
Env.2.2. Explain that Henry Cowles found the Indiana Dunes and Lake Michigan shoreline area a natural laboratory for developing important principles of plant succession.
IN.AP.1. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Cells and Tissues with Related Membranes: Students should understand that molecules make up the fabric of living cells, which, in turn, make up tissues. Students should know the role of adhesion molecules, the classification of tissues, and the various cell types found in them.
AP.1.1 Compare and contrast the different ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane including diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.
AP.1.2 Describe the importance of proteins in cell function and structure. Give specific examples of proteins and their functions and describe how proteins are synthesized.
AP.1.3 Describe the general structure of an epithelium including the basement membrane. Describe the types and locations of epithelia. Describe endocrine and exocrine glands and their development from glandular epithelium. Compare and contrast epithelial and synovial membranes.
AP.1.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of cells that make up the various types of muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and connective tissue.
AP.1.5 Discuss the important physiological functions of the skin. Describe the structure of the skin, including the hypodermis, dermis, and the layers of the epidermis. Discuss the accessory structures of the skin: hairs, nails, and glands.
IN.AP.2. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Movement and Support in Humans: Students know the physiology and structure of bones and skeletal muscle as they interact to provide movement and support of the human body. Students understand the chemical and microscopic structure of bone; its development, repair, turnover, and growth; and its ability to heal when damaged. Students know that although the skeleton is made up of rigid bones, many joints allow for movement.
AP.2.1 Bone Structure and Physiology, The Skeleton and the Joints: Explain the anatomical position and the terms that describe relative positions, body planes, and body regions. Describe the body cavities, their membranes, and the organs within each cavity; the major organ systems; and their role in the functioning of the body.
AP.2.2 Bone Structure and Physiology, The Skeleton and the Joints: Distinguish bones according to shape and describe the major functions of bone. Describe the structure of a typical long bone and indicate how each part functions in the physiology and growth of the bone.
AP.2.3 Bone Structure and Physiology, The Skeleton and the Joints: Compare and contrast the microscopic organization of compact (cortical) bone and spongy (trabecular) bone. Describe the types of cell found in bone and their role in bone growth and control of bone mass.
AP.2.4 Bone Structure and Physiology, The Skeleton and the Joints: Distinguish the axial from the appendicular skeleton and name the major bones of each. Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that make up the skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, and lower limb.
AP.2.5 Bone Structure and Physiology, The Skeleton and the Joints: Describe the major types of joints in terms of their mobility and the tissues that hold them together. Describe the structures that make up a synovial joint; describe synovial fluid and its properties.
AP.2.6 Muscle Structure and Physiology: Compare and contrast the microscopic structure, organization, function, and molecular basis of contraction in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.
AP.2.7 Muscle Structure and Physiology: Name the components of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe their functions. Describe how the thin and thick filaments are organized in the sarcomere. Explain the molecular processes and biochemical mechanisms that provide energy for muscle contraction and relaxation.
AP.2.8 Muscle Structure and Physiology: Describe a motor unit and its importance in controlling the force and velocity of muscle contraction. Describe the neuromuscular junction and the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction.
AP.2.9 Muscle Structure and Physiology: Identify the major muscles on a diagram of the body's musculature and describe the movements associated with each of them.
AP.2.10 Muscle Structure and Physiology: Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions of skeletal muscle; cite examples of each and discuss how muscle contraction is amplified by the use of lever systems.
AP.2.11 Muscle Structure and Physiology: Explain what is meant by muscular hypertrophy and atrophy and the causes of these conditions.
IN.AP.3. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Nervous Tissue and Neurophysiology: Students recognize that the nervous system, together with the endocrine system, controls and integrates the workings of the human body. Students recognize that nerve cells are the functional cellular units of the nervous system, and that their activity allows for rapid transmission of information along their axons as well as an ability to network by 'talking' to other nerve cells.
AP.3.1 Discuss the three basic types of activity in the nervous system: (1) sensory; (2) integration, interpretation, information storage, decision-making; (3) motor function. Distinguish the structures of the various functional types of neurons; diagram the structure of a motor neuron and explain the function of each component.
AP.3.2 Describe the different types of neuroglial cells. Describe the function of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells; describe the structure and function of the myelin sheath and the role that Schwann cells play in regeneration of a severed nerve axon.
AP.3.3 Discuss mathematically the origin of the resting potential, referring to the intra- and extracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions, the permeability of the plasma membrane to these ions, and the intracellular concentration of negatively-charged proteins.
AP.3.4 Explain the changes in membrane potential during the action potential and their relationship to the number of open channels for sodium and potassium ions.
AP.3.5 Explain the structure and the role of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in a synapse. Explain why it is important to remove a neurotransmitter after it has been released and describe two mechanisms for doing this.
IN.AP.4. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Structure and Function of the Nervous System: Students should understand that the nervous system is divided into the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. Students should be familiar with the structure and functions of the spinal cord and the subdivisions of the brain.
AP.4.1 Recognize that the nervous system is divided into the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.
AP.4.2 Describe the meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord. Describe the ventricles in the brain and how they are interconnected.
AP.4.3 Describe the secretion, flow pathways, and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid, its locations, and explain its functions.
AP.4.4 Discuss the functions of the spinal cord. Describe the five segments (regions) of the spinal cord and explain its cross-sectional anatomy in terms of organization.
AP.4.5 Describe a dermatome and its clinical importance.
AP.4.6 Describe the various types of spinal reflex and discuss their importance with regards to posture and avoidance of painful stimuli.
AP.4.7 Discuss the components and broad function of the brain stem and the diencephalon. Describe and give the functions of the various structures that make up the cerebrum including the cerebral cortex and its anatomical divisions, the cerebral components of the basal ganglia, and the corpus callosum.
AP.4.8 Describe the functions and locations of the motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex.
AP.4.9 Explain hemispheric dominance.
AP.4.10 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and its nuclei regarding postural control, smooth coordination of movements, and motor learning.
AP.4.11 Describe the major characteristics of the autonomic nervous system and contrast its efferent pathways with those of the somatic nervous system. Compare and contrast the actions, origins, and pathways of nerve fibers in the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system including their associated ganglia and neurotransmitters.
IN.AP.5. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Sensory Systems: Students should describe the structure and function of sensory receptors and their role in human survival.
AP.5.1 Somatic Senses: Distinguish between somatic senses and special senses and classify sensory receptors according to the types of stimuli that activate them.
AP.5.2 Somatic Senses: Explain how information on stimulus intensity and stimulus quality is signaled to the brain.
AP.5.3 Somatic Senses: Explain what is meant by sensory receptor adaptation and give examples related to everyday experience.
AP.5.4 Special Senses: Describe the structure, function, and location of olfactory and taste receptor cells.
AP.5.5 Special Senses: Name the parts of the eye: explain the function of the parts involved in light detection with the parts defining the optical properties of the eye.
AP.5.6 Special Senses: Describe the three regions of the ear. Distinguish the structure and function of the vestibular apparatus from the auditory apparatus. Describe how sound is transmitted from the external auditory meatus to the cochlea.
IN.AP.6. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Endocrine System: Students understand the structure and function of the endocrine system in relation to digestion and metabolism, homeostasis, survival, growth, development, and reproduction
AP.6.1 Discuss the difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland. Explain the nature of a hormone and the importance of the endocrine system in relation to digestion and metabolism, homeostasis, survival, growth, development, and reproduction. Contrast the endocrine glands that are exclusively endocrine in function with endocrine tissue found in organs that also have other functions.
AP.6.2 Identify the various chemical classes to which hormones belong and explain that some hormones act via second messengers while others affect gene expression.
AP.6.3 Discuss neural, hormonal, and other chemical compounds that control hormone secretion. Using examples, describe negative feedback in the control of hormone secretion.
AP.6.4 Describe the structure and hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary complex, and the function of these hormones in controlling the thyroid, gonads, and adrenal cortex. Describe structure of these glands and the functions of the hormones secreted by them. For the glands that are not under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary complex (e.g. the parathyroid, the pancreas, the pineal gland, and the adrenal medulla), describe their structure, the hormones secreted and their function, and their stimuli for secretion.
AP.6.5 Discuss how the hypothalamus-pituitary complex, the sympathetic nervous system, the adrenal medulla, and the adrenal cortex are all involved in the response to stress.
IN.AP.7. Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Blood: Students understand the functions of blood including its role in essential protection to combat invading microorganisms, acute inflammation, and immune responses.
AP.7.1 Describe the functions of the blood and distinguish whole blood from plasma and serum. Classify and explain the functions of the formed elements found in blood and describe where they are produced.
AP.7.2 Describe how erythropoietin regulates red blood cell production in response to anoxia.
AP.7.3 Explain the ABO blood types and discuss their importance during a blood transfusion.
AP.7.4 Describe hemostasis and the basic processes in blood clotting.
IN.AP.8. Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Cardiovascular System: Students recognize the anatomy and function of the heart and blood vessels. Because diseases of the cardiovascular system are a major cause of death in this country, it is important to understand the normal physiology of the heart and blood vessels.
AP.8.1 The Heart and Blood Vessels: Discuss the functions of the circulatory system; describe with the aid of a diagram the basic arrangement of the cardiovascular system and blood flow through it (include the pulmonary and systemic circuits). Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood.
AP.8.2 The Heart and Blood Vessels: Describe the layers found in the walls of blood vessels and discuss the relative prominence of these layers in the different types of blood vessels. Include an analysis of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation and their importance in controlling blood flow through tissues. Describe both the venous pump and varicose veins.
AP.8.3 The Heart and Blood Vessels: Diagram the structure of a capillary bed and explain how materials move in and out of capillaries. Discuss edema.
AP.8.4 The Heart and Blood Vessels: Describe the structure of the heart: including the pericardium. Describe the major vessels entering and leaving the heart and the regions they serve. Explain how the heart valves ensure one-way blood flow during systole and diastole. Discuss the heart sounds.
AP.8.5 The Heart and Blood Vessels: Discuss the importance of the baroreceptor reflex in the regulation of blood pressure. Explain what is meant by hypertension and mention some of the dangers associated with hypertension.
AP.8.6 Electrical Activity of the Heart and the Electrocardiogram: Describe how the action potential of a cardiac muscle cell differs from that of a neuron. Describe the importance of calcium ion influx during the plateau phase of the action potential. Discuss the functioning of pacemaker cells and how the wave of depolarization is transmitted to the ventricles.
AP.8.7 Electrical Activity of the Heart and the Electrocardiogram: Explain the origins of the waves of the electrocardiogram and their medical significance in diagnosis of a heart problem.
AP.8.8 Adjustment of the Cardiovascular System to Exercise and Hemorrhage: Explain the similarities and differences between the adjustment of the cardiovascular system to exercise and hemorrhage. Contrast changes in the distribution of blood flow and cardiac output and explain the importance of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system in these responses.
IN.AP.9. Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Lymphatic System: Students should understand the role of the lymphatic system in the body's defense against marauding pathogens. Students should also understand that many of the cells of the immune system are formed, reside in, are processed in, or travel within and through the structures of the lymphatic system. Students should understand these structures, classify them, and know their location.
AP.9.1 Discuss the major anatomical structures and functions of the lymphatic system including the lymphatic vessels; the structure and major groupings of lymph nodes; and the structures and functions of the spleen, thymus, and bone marrow.
AP.9.2 Describe the formation of lymph and its movement through the lymphatic system.
IN.AP.10. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Immune Mechanisms: Students should know that pathogens attempt to invade our bodies to take advantage of our nutrients and our protein synthetic machinery. Students should understand the various lines of defense including the two immune systems that save us from certain death by infection. Students should know the cellular and non-cellular components of the innate, natural, non-specific immune system and the specific, acquired immune system.
AP.10.1 Discuss the different types of pathogens and outline the strategies the body uses to protect itself from them. Distinguish non-specific, innate, or natural immunity from specific or acquired immunity. Recognize their overlap and describe their cellular and non-cellular components.
AP.10.2 Describe the mechanisms of the acute inflammatory response, its causes, and the role of chemical signaling molecules.
AP.10.3 Describe the development and maturation of B- and T-lymphocytes. Discuss why the development of self-tolerance is important.
AP.10.4 Define and discuss antigens, antibodies, and complement.
IN.AP.11. Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Respiratory System: Students should understand why it is necessary to breathe. They should understand how breathing is controlled, how the mechanical aspects of the breathing processes occur, and how ventilation of the lungs changes in response to changes in blood oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH.
AP.11.1 Recognize that breathing supplies oxygen that is critical for oxidative phosphorylation. Describe the anatomy of the respiratory system and the route taken by the inspiratory flow of air from the nose into the alveoli.
AP.11.2 Contrast the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration (quiet and forced) and explain the role of various muscles and of lung elasticity in this process. Compare the percentages of the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the external air to the percentages in the alveolar and the pulmonary capillaries. Explain the meaning of partial pressure.
AP.11.3 Explain the use of the spirometer and describe the data it generates in a spirogram.
AP.11.4 Describe the neuronal networks controlling respiration. Contrast and compare the chemoreceptors involved in control of respiration and the stimuli to which they respond. Explain how these receptors affect ventilation under conditions of low arterial oxygen partial pressure, high arterial carbon dioxide, and low arterial pH.
IN.AP.12. Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Digestive System: Students should be able to define the digestive system and to state the structures, regulators, and functions of its primary and accessory structures and organs. Students should be able to explain why food is essential for life. They should understand the anatomy of the splanchnic circulation and its relationship to the liver.
AP.12.1 Describe the organs and organ relationships of the gastrointestinal tract and the cells and layers found in its walls. Include the salivary glands, liver, and pancreas.
AP.12.2 Describe the functions of all the structural components and enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs in relation to the processing, digesting, and absorbing of the three major food classes. State the chemical forms in which the three major food classes are absorbed. Explain the roles of the lacteals and the hepatic portal vein in transporting the products of digestion.
AP.12.3 Describe the regulation of the enzyme and bicarbonate content of the pancreatic juice.
AP.12.4 Describe the microscopic anatomy of the liver and its relationship to the functions of the liver.
IN.AP.13. Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Urinary System: Students should understand the microscopic and macroscopic anatomy of the renal system. Students should understand the function of the kidneys in relation to homeostatic control of bodily fluids, blood pressure, and erythrocyte production. They should understand micturition, the properties of urine, and the physiological processes involved in the production of urine. Students should understand the importance of a high blood flow through the kidneys and the kidney's role in control of sugar, salts, and water.
AP.13.1 Discuss the functions of the kidneys. Describe the anatomy of the renal system, including the gross anatomy, blood supply, and location of the kidneys, and the layers in the walls of the ureters and urinary bladder.
AP.13.2 Explain the neural basis of micturition including the function of the sphincters associated with the male and female urethra.
AP.13.3 Describe the internal structure of the kidney; describe the parts of a nephron and how they are involved in the three steps in the production of urine; compare the composition of plasma and ultrafiltrate and discuss the percentages of filtered water, sodium, and glucose normally reabsorbed by the kidney tubules.
AP.13.4 Explain the importance of the juxtaglomerular cells in the secretion of renin, which plays a central role in controlling blood pressure by controlling blood levels of angiotensin and aldosterone.
IN.AP.14. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance: Students should explain how we control the salt content and volume of the fluid that surrounds the cells of our bodies and why this control is necessary. Students should be able to explain why it is necessary to control the pH of the fluids in our bodies. They should be able to define alkalosis and acidosis. Students should know the various sources of acid and the three ways in which the body defends itself against lethal changes of pH.
AP.14.1 Contrast the volume and electrolyte content of the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. Explain the importance of sodium, potassium, and calcium in the body's physiology.
AP.14.2 Discuss how the volume of body fluid is determined by the balance between ingested and metabolic water on the one hand and water lost in the urine, respiration, feces, and sweating on the other hand. Describe the factors that generate the sensation of thirst. Describe how the kidneys respond to excess water intake and to dehydration; explain the role of antidiuretic hormone and of other hormones that control sodium and water absorption in the kidney.
AP.14.3 Describe how food and metabolic processes add acid to the body fluids; recognize how chemical buffers, the lungs and the kidneys, interact in protecting the body against lethal changes of pH.
AP.14.4 Explain the difference between metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
IN.AP.15. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Reproduction and Development: Student should explain the structure, function and hormonal control of the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, early embryonic development, pregnancy, and parturition.
AP.15.1 Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems. Compare and contrast oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Distinguish between diploid germ cells and haploid/monoploid sex cells.
AP.15.2 Describe the related hormones, their cell origins, and their functions; explain the functions of the gonadotropins FSH and LH in males and females.
AP.15.3 Explain what is happening during the follicular, ovulatory, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Describe how estradiol and progesterone released by the ovaries are responsible for the phases of the uterine cycle.
AP.15.4 Describe how spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and describe the process of fertilization.
AP.15.5 Explain the differences among dikaryon zygote, a zygote, a morula, and a blastocyst; recognize that the blastocyst secretes human gonadotropin, which prolongs the life of the corpus luteum and therefore, maintains levels of progesterone. Describe the process of implantation, development of the placenta, the substances that move across it, and the role of the placenta in maintaining the high levels of progesterone essential for a successful pregnancy.
IN.CP.1. Integrated Chemistry: Principles of Integrated Chemistry - Physics: Students begin to conceptualize the general architecture of the atom and the roles played by the main constituents of the atom in determining the properties of materials. They investigate, using such methods as laboratory work, the different properties of matter. They investigate the concepts of relative motion, the action/reaction principle, wave behavior, and the interaction of matter and energy.
CP.1.1. Structure and Properties of Matter: Understand and explain that atoms have a positive nucleus (consisting of relatively massive positive protons and neutral neutrons) surrounded by negative electrons of much smaller mass, some of which may be lost, gained, or shared when interacting with other atoms.
CP.1.2. Structure and Properties of Matter: Realize that and explain how a neutral atom's atomic number and mass number can be used to determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up an atom.
CP.1.3. Structure and Properties of Matter: Understand, and give examples to show, that isotopes of the same element have the same numbers of protons and electrons but differ in the numbers of neutrons.
CP.1.4. Structure and Properties of Matter: Know and explain that physical properties can be used to differentiate among pure substances, solutions, and heterogeneous mixtures.
CP.1.5. Changes in Matter: Distinguish among chemical and physical changes in matter by identifying characteristics of these changes.
CP.1.6. Changes in Matter: Understand and explain how an atom can acquire an unbalanced electrical charge by gaining or losing electrons.
CP.1.7. Changes in Matter: Identify the substances gaining and losing electrons in simple oxidation-reduction reactions.
CP.1.8. Changes in Matter: Know and explain that the nucleus of a radioactive isotope is unstable and may spontaneously decay, emitting particles and/or electromagnetic radiation.
CP.1.9. Changes in Matter: Show how the predictability of the nuclei decay rate allows radioactivity to be used for estimating the age of materials that contain radioactive substances.
CP.1.10. Changes in Matter: Understand that the Periodic Table is a listing of elements arranged by increasing atomic number, and use it to predict whether a selected atom would gain, lose, or share electrons as it interacts with other selected atoms.
CP.1.11. Changes in Matter: Understand and give examples to show that an enormous variety of biological, chemical, and physical phenomena can be explained by changes in the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules.
CP.1.12. Changes in Matter: Realize and explain that because mass is conserved in chemical reactions, balanced chemical equations must be used to show that atoms are conserved.
CP.1.13. Changes in Matter: Explain that the rate of reactions among atoms and molecules depends on how often they encounter one another, which is in turn affected by the concentrations, pressures, and temperatures of the reacting materials.
CP.1.14. Changes in Matter: Understand and explain that catalysts are highly effective in encouraging the interaction of other atoms and molecules.
CP.1.15. Energy Transformations: Understand and explain that whenever the amount of energy in one place or form diminishes, the amount in other places or forms increases by the same amount.
CP.1.16. Energy Transformations: Explain that heat energy in a material consists of the disordered motions of its atoms or molecules.
CP.1.17. Energy Transformations: Know and explain that transformations of energy usually transform some energy into the form of heat, which dissipates by radiation or conduction into cooler surroundings.
CP.1.18. Energy Transformations: Recognize and describe the heat transfer associated with a chemical reaction or a phase change as either exothermic or endothermic, and understand the significance of the distinction.
CP.1.19. Energy Transformations: Understand and explain that the energy released whenever heavy nuclei split or light nuclei combine is roughly a million times greater than the energy absorbed or released in a chemical reaction. (E=mc2)
CP.1.20. Energy Transformations: Realize and explain that the energy in a system is the sum of both potential energy and kinetic energy.
CP.1.21. Motion: Understand and explain that the change in motion of an object (acceleration) is proportional to the net force applied to the object and inversely proportional to the object's mass.
CP.1.22. Motion: Recognize and explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal and opposite force is exerted back on it by the other object.
CP.1.23. Motion: Understand and explain that the motion of an object is described by its position, velocity, and acceleration.
CP.1.24. Motion: Recognize and explain that waves are described by their velocity, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude.
CP.1.25. Motion: Understand and explain that waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction when entering a new material.
CP.1.26. Motion: Realize and explain that all motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, for there is no absolute motionless frame from which to judge all motion.
CP.1.27. Forces of Nature: Recognize and describe that gravitational force is an attraction between masses and that the strength of the force is proportional to the masses and decreases rapidly as the square of the distance between the masses increases.
CP.1.28. Forces of Nature: Realize and explain that electromagnetic forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between atoms.
CP.1.29. Forces of Nature: Understand and explain that at the atomic level, electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms and molecules together and thus, are involved in all chemical reactions.
CP.1.30. Forces of Nature: Understand and explain that in materials, there are usually equal proportions of positive and negative charges, making the materials as a whole electrically neutral. However, also know that a very small excess or deficit of negative charges will produce noticeable electric forces.
CP.1.31. Forces of Nature: Realize and explain that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces.
IN.CP.2. Integrated Chemistry: Historical Perspectives of Integrated Chemistry - Physics: Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that these ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that these ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that these ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.
CP.2.1. Explain that Antoine Lavoisier invented a whole new field of science based on a theory of materials, physical laws, and quantitative methods, with the conservation of matter at its core. Recognize that he persuaded a generation of scientists that his approach accounted for the experimental results better than other chemical systems.
CP.2.2. Describe how Lavoisier's system for naming substances and describing their reactions contributed to the rapid growth of chemistry by enabling scientists everywhere to share their findings about chemical reactions with one another without ambiguity.
CP.2.3. Explain that John Dalton's modernization of the ancient Greek ideas of element, atom, compound, and molecule strengthened the new chemistry by providing physical explanations for reactions that could be expressed in quantitative terms.
CP.2.4. Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had demonstrated two generations earlier.
CP.2.5. Describe that Newton's system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration, his three laws of motion relating them, and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
CP.2.6. Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and the earth's equatorial bulge.
CP.2.7. Describe that among the surprising ideas of Albert Einstein's special relativity is that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, which is the same for all observers no matter how they or the light source happen to be moving.
CP.2.8. Explain that the special theory of relativity is best known for stating that any form of energy has mass, and that matter itself is a form of energy.
CP.2.9. Describe that general relativity theory pictures Newton's gravitational force as a distortion of space and time.
CP.2.10. Explain that Marie and Pierre Curie made radium available to researchers all over the world, increasing the study of radioactivity and leading to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so must be made up of smaller parts.
CP.2.11. Explain that Rutherford and his colleagues discovered that the heavy radioactive element uranium spontaneously splits itself into a slightly lighter nucleus and a very light helium nucleus.
CP.2.12. Describe that later, Austrian and German scientists showed that when uranium is struck by neutrons, it splits into two nearly equal parts plus one or two extra neutrons. Note that Lise Meitner, an Austrian physicist, was the first to point out that if these fragments added up to less mass than the original uranium nucleus, then Einstein's special relativity theory predicted that a large amount of energy would be released. Also note that Enrico Fermi, an Italian working with colleagues in the United States, showed that the extra neutrons trigger more fissions and so create a sustained chain reaction in which a prodigious amount of energy is given off.
IN.P.1. Physics: Principles of Physics: Students recognize the nature and scope of physics, including its relationship to other sciences and its ability to describe the natural world. Students learn how physics describes the natural world, using quantities such as velocity, acceleration, force, energy, momentum, and charge. Through experimentation and analysis, students develop skills that enable them to understand the physical environment. They learn to make predictions about natural phenomena by using physical laws to calculate or estimate these quantities. Students learn that this description of nature can be applied to diverse phenomena at scales ranging from the subatomic to the structure of the universe and include every day events. Students learn how the ideas they study in physics can by used in concert with the ideas of the other sciences. They also learn how physics can help to promote new technologies. Students will be able to communicate what they have learned orally, mathematically, using diagrams, and in writing.
P.1.1. The Properties of Matter: Describe matter in terms of its fundamental constituents, and be able to differentiate among those constituents.
P.1.2. The Properties of Matter: Measure or determine the physical quantities including mass, charge, pressure, volume, temperature, and density of an object or unknown sample.
P.1.3. The Properties of Matter: Describe and apply the kinetic molecular theory to the states of matter.
P.1.4. The Properties of Matter: Employ correct units in describing common physical quantities.
P.1.5. The Relationships Between Motion and Force: Use appropriate vector and scalar quantities to solve kinematics and dynamics problems in one and two dimensions.
P.1.6. The Relationships Between Motion and Force: Describe and measure motion in terms of position, time, and the derived quantities of velocity and acceleration.
P.1.7. The Relationships Between Motion and Force: Use Newton's Laws (e.g., F = ma) together with the kinematic equations to predict the motion of an object.
P.1.8. The Relationships Between Motion and Force: Describe the nature of centripetal force and centripetal acceleration (including the formula a = v2/r), and use these ideas to predict the motion of an object.
P.1.9. The Relationships Between Motion and Force: Use the conservation of energy and conservation of momentum laws to predict, both conceptually and quantitatively, the results of the interactions between objects.
P.1.10. The Relationships Between Motion and Force: Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse square nature of gravitational and electrostatic forces.
P.1.11. The Nature of Energy: Recognize energy in its different manifestations such as kinetic (KE = 1/2 mv2), gravitational potential (PE = mgh), thermal, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, or mechanical.
P.1.12. The Nature of Energy: Use the law of conservation of energy to predict the outcome(s) of an energy transformation.
P.1.13. The Nature of Energy: Use the concepts of temperature, thermal energy, transfer of thermal energy, and the mechanical equivalent of heat to predict the results of an energy transfer.
P.1.14. The Nature of Energy: Explain the relation between energy (E) and power (P). Explain the definition of the unit of power, the watt.
P.1.15. Momentum and Energy: Distinguish between the concepts of momentum (using the formula p = mv) and energy.
P.1.16. Momentum and Energy: Describe circumstances under which each conservation law may be used.
P.1.17. The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism: Describe the interaction between stationary charges using Coulomb's Law. Know that the force on a charged particle in an electrical field is qE, where E is the electric field at the position of the particle, and q is the charge of the particle.
P.1.18. The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism: Explain the concepts of electrical charge, electrical current, electrical potential, electric field, and magnetic field. Use the definitions of the coulomb, the ampere, the volt, the volt/meter, and the tesla.
P.1.19. The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism: Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in series and parallel circuits. Know that any resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation), using the formula Power = IV = I2R.
P.1.20. The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism: Describe electric and magnetic forces in terms of the field concept and the relationship between moving charges and magnetic fields. Know that the magnitude of the force on a moving particle with charge q in a magnetic field is qvBsina, where v and B are the magnitudes of vectors v and B and a is the angle between v and B.
P.1.21. The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism: Explain the operation of electric generators and motors in terms of Ampere's law and Faraday's law.
P.1.22. The Behavior of Waves: Describe waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics of velocity, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude. Know that radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3 x 10 to the 8th power m/s (186,000 miles/second).
P.1.23. The Behavior of Waves: Use the principle of superposition to describe the interference effects arising from propagation of several waves through the same medium.
P.1.24. The Behavior of Waves: Use the concepts of reflection, refraction, polarization, transmission, and absorption to predict the motion of waves moving through space and matter.
P.1.25. The Behavior of Waves: Use the concepts of wave motion to predict conceptually and quantitatively the various properties of a simple optical system.
P.1.26. The Behavior of Waves: Identify electromagnetic radiation as a wave phenomenon after observing refraction, reflection, and polarization of such radiation.
P.1.27. The Laws of Thermodynamics: Understand that the temperature of an object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in it and that the thermal energy is the sum of all the microscopic potential and kinetic energies.
P.1.28. The Laws of Thermodynamics: Describe the Laws of Thermodynamics, understanding that energy is conserved, heat does not move from a cooler object to a hotter one without the application of external energy, and that there is a lowest temperature, called absolute zero. Use these laws in calculations of the behavior of simple systems.
P.1.29. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Describe the nuclear model of the atom in terms of mass and spatial relationships of the electrons, protons, and neutrons.
P.1.30. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Explain that the nucleus, although it contains nearly all of the mass of the atom, occupies less than the proportion of the solar system occupied by the sun. Explain that the mass of a neutron or a proton is about 2,000 times greater than the mass of an electron.
P.1.31. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Explain the role of the strong nuclear force in binding matter together.
P.1.32. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Using the concept of binding energy per nucleon, explain why a massive nucleus that fissions into two medium-mass nuclei emits energy in the process.
P.1.33. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Using the same concept, explain why two light nuclei that fuse into a more massive nucleus emit energy in the process.
P.1.34. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Understand and explain the properties of radioactive materials, including half-life, types of emissions, and the relative penetrative powers of each type.
P.1.35. The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics: Describe sources and uses of radioactivity and nuclear energy.
IN.P.2. Physics: Historical Perspectives of Physics: Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, students understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that these ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that these ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that they grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.
P.2.1. Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had proposed two generations earlier.
P.2.2. Describe how Newton's system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration, his three laws of motion relating to them, and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
P.2.3. Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and the earth's equatorial bulge.
P.2.4. Describe how the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell used Ampere's law and Faraday's law to predict the existence of electromagnetic waves and predict that light was just such a wave. Also understand that these predictions were confirmed by Heinrich Hertz, whose confirmations thus made possible the fields of radio, television, and many other technologies.
P.2.5. Describe how among the surprising ideas of Albert Einstein's special relativity is that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, which is the same for all observers no matter how they or the light source happen to be moving, and that the length of time interval is not the same for observers in relative motion.
P.2.6. Explain that the special theory of relativity (E=mc2) is best known for stating that any form of energy has mass and that matter itself is a form of energy.
P.2.7. Describe how general relativity theory pictures Newton's gravitational force as a distortion of space and time.
P.2.8. Explain that Marie and Pierre Curie made radium available to researchers all over the world, increasing the study of radioactivity and leading to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so must be made up of smaller parts. Note that these parts were demonstrated by Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden to be small, dense nuclei that contain protons and neutrons and are surrounded by clouds of electrons.
P.2.9. Explain that Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues discovered that the radioactive element radon spontaneously splits itself into a slightly lighter nucleus and a very light helium nucleus.
P.2.10. Describe how later, Austrian and German scientists showed that when uranium is struck by neutrons, it splits into two nearly equal parts plus two or three extra neutrons. Note that Lise Meitner, an Austrian physicist, was the first to point out that if these fragments added up to less mass than the original uranium nucleus, then Einstein's special relativity theory predicted that a large amount of energy would be released. Also note that Enrico Fermi, an Italian working with colleagues in the United States, showed that the extra neutrons trigger more fissions and so create a sustained chain reaction in which a prodigious amount of energy is given off.