# Pennsylvania State Standards for Science: Grade 6

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### 3.1.7.A. Explain the parts of a simple system and their relationship to each other.

3.1.7.A.1. Describe a system as a group of related parts that work together to achieve a desired result (e.g., digestive system). 20
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.A.1.

3.1.7.A.2. Explain the importance of order in a system. 20
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.A.2.

3.1.7.A.3. Distinguish between system inputs, system processes and system outputs. 20
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.A.3.

3.1.7.A.4. Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems. 20
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.A.4.

3.1.7.A.5. Apply systems analysis to solve problems. 24
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.A.5.

### 3.1.7.B. Describe the use of models as an application of scientific or technological concepts.

3.1.7.B.1. Identify and describe different types of models and their functions. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.B.1.

3.1.7.B.2. Apply models to predict specific results and observations (e.g., population growth, effects of infectious organisms). 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.B.2.

3.1.7.B.3. Explain systems by outlining a system's relevant parts and its purpose and/or designing a model that illustrates its function. 19
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.B.3.

### 3.1.7.C. Identify patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.

3.1.7.C.1. Identify different forms of patterns and use them to group and classify specific objects. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.C.1.

3.1.7.C.2. Identify repeating structure patterns. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.C.2.

3.1.7.C.3. Identify and describe patterns that occur in physical systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems. 58
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.C.3.

### 3.1.7.D. Explain scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.

3.1.7.D.1. Apply various applications of size and dimensions of scale to scientific, mathematical, and technological applications. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.D.1.

3.1.7.D.2. Describe scale as a form of ratio and apply to a life situation. 24
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.D.2.

### 3.1.7.E. Identify change as a variable in describing natural and physical systems.

3.1.7.E.1. Describe fundamental science and technology concepts that could solve practical problems. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.E.1.

3.1.7.E.2. Explain how ratio is used to describe change. 16
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.E.2.

3.1.7.E.3. Describe the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.1.7.E.3.

### 3.2.7.A. Explain and apply scientific and technological knowledge.

3.2.7.A.1. Distinguish between a scientific theory and a belief. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.A.1.

3.2.7.A.2. Answer what if questions based on observation, inference or prior knowledge or experience. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.A.2.

3.2.7.A.3. Explain how skepticism about an accepted scientific explanation led to a new understanding. 41
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.A.3.

3.2.7.A.4. Explain how new information may change existing theories and practice. 15
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.A.4.

### 3.2.7.B. Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations.

3.2.7.B.1. Measure materials using a variety of scales. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.B.1.

3.2.7.B.2. Describe relationships by making inferences and predictions. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.B.2.

3.2.7.B.3. Communicate, use space / time relationships, define operationally, raise questions, formulate hypotheses, test and experiment, 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.B.3.

3.2.7.B.4. Design controlled experiments, recognize variables, and manipulate variables. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.B.4.

3.2.7.B.5. Interpret data, formulate models, design models, and produce solutions. 23
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.B.5.

### 3.2.7.C. Identify and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.

3.2.7.C.1. Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.C.1.

3.2.7.C.2. Evaluate the appropriateness of questions. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.C.2.

3.2.7.C.3. Design an investigation with limited variables to investigate a question. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.C.3.

3.2.7.C.4. Conduct a two-part experiment. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.C.4.

3.2.7.C.5. Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.C.5.

3.2.7.C.6. Communicate appropriate conclusions from the experiment. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.C.6.

### 3.2.7.D. Know and use the technological design process to solve problems.

3.2.7.D.1. Define different types of problems. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.D.1.

3.2.7.D.2. Define all aspects of the problem, necessary information and questions that must be answered. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.D.2.

3.2.7.D.3. Propose the best solution. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.D.3.

3.2.7.D.4. Design and propose alternative methods to achieve solutions. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.D.4.

3.2.7.D.5. Apply a solution. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.D.5.

3.2.7.D.6. Explain the results, present improvements, identify and infer the impacts of the solution. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.2.7.D.6.

### 3.3.7.A. Describe the similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things.

3.3.7.A.1. Describe how the structures of living things help them function in unique ways. 29
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.A.1.

3.3.7.A.2. Explain how to use a dichotomous key to identify plants and animals. 29
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.A.2.

3.3.7.A.3. Account for adaptations among organisms that live in a particular environment. 24
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.A.3.

### 3.3.7.B. Describe the cell as the basic structural and functional unit of living things.

3.3.7.B.1. Identify the levels of organization from cell to organism. 18
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.B.1.

3.3.7.B.2. Compare life processes at the organism level with life processes at the cell level. 18
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.B.2.

3.3.7.B.3. Explain that cells and organisms have particular structures that underlie their functions. 18
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.B.3.

3.3.7.B.4. Describe and distinguish among cell cycles, reproductive cycles and life cycles. 18
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.B.4.

3.3.7.B.5. Explain disease effects on structures or functions of an organism. 28
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.B.5.

### 3.3.7.C. Know that every organism has a set of genetic instructions that determines its inherited traits.

3.3.7.C.1. Identify and explain inheritable characteristics. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.1.

3.3.7.C.2. Identify that the gene is the basic unit of inheritance. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.2.

3.3.7.C.3. Identify basic patterns of inheritance (e.g., dominance, recessive, co-dominance). 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.3.

3.3.7.C.4. Describe how traits are inherited. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.4.

3.3.7.C.5. Distinguish how different living things reproduce (e.g., vegetative budding, sexual). 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.5.

3.3.7.C.6. Recognize that mutations can alter a gene. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.6.

3.3.7.C.7. Describe how selective breeding, natural selection and genetic technologies can change genetic makeup of organisms. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.C.7.

### 3.3.7.D. Explain basic concepts of natural selection.

3.3.7.D.1. Identify adaptations that allow organisms to survive in their environment. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.D.1.

3.3.7.D.2. Describe how an environmental change can affect the survival of organisms and entire species. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.D.2.

3.3.7.D.3. Know that differences in individuals of the same species may give some advantage in surviving and reproducing. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.D.3.

3.3.7.D.4. Recognize that populations of organisms can increase rapidly. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.D.4.

3.3.7.D.5. Describe the role that fossils play in studying the past. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.D.5.

3.3.7.D.6. Explain how biologic extinction is a natural process. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.3.7.D.6.

### 3.4.7.A. Describe concepts about the structure and properties of matter.

3.4.7.A.1. Identify elements as basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down chemically. 57
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.A.1.

3.4.7.A.2. Distinguish compounds from mixtures. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.A.2.

3.4.7.A.3. Describe and conduct experiments that identify chemical and physical properties. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.A.3.

3.4.7.A.4. Describe reactants and products of simple chemical reactions. 13
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.A.4.

### 3.4.7.B. Relate energy sources and transfers to heat and temperature.

3.4.7.B.1. Identify and describe sound changes in moving objects. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.B.1.

3.4.7.B.2. Know that the sun is a major source of energy that emits wavelengths of visible light, infrared and ultraviolet radiation. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.B.2.

3.4.7.B.3. Explain the conversion of one form of energy to another by applying knowledge of each form of energy. 20
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.B.3.

3.4.7.B.4. Explain the parts and functions in an electrical circuit. 7
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.B.4.

### 3.4.7.C. Identify and explain the principles of force and motion.

3.4.7.C.1. Describe the motion of an object based on its position, direction and speed. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.C.1.

3.4.7.C.2. Classify fluid power systems according to fluid used or mode of power transmission (e.g., air, oil). 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.C.2.

3.4.7.C.3. Explain various motions using models. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.C.3.

3.4.7.C.4. Explain how convex and concave mirrors and lens change light images. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.C.4.

3.4.7.C.5. Explain how sound and light travel in waves of differing speeds, sizes and frequencies. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.C.5.

### 3.4.7.D. Describe essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe and the earth's place in it.

3.4.7.D.1. Compare various planets' characteristics. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.1.

3.4.7.D.2. Describe basic star types and identify the sun as a star type. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.2.

3.4.7.D.3. Describe and differentiate comets, asteroids and meteors. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.3.

3.4.7.D.4. Identify gravity as the force that keeps planets in orbit around the sun and governs the rest of the movement of the solar system and the universe. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.4.

3.4.7.D.5. Illustrate how the positions of stars and constellations change in relation to the Earth during an evening and from month to month. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.5.

3.4.7.D.6. Identify equipment and instruments that explore the universe. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.6.

3.4.7.D.7. Identify the accomplishments and contributions provided by selected past and present scientists in the field of astronomy. 1
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.7.

3.4.7.D.8. Identify and articulate space program efforts to investigate possibilities of living in space and on other planets. 7
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.4.7.D.8.

### 3.5.7.A. Describe earth features and processes.

3.5.7.A.1. Describe major layers of the earth. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.A.1.

3.5.7.A.2. Describe the processes involved in the creation of geologic features (e.g., folding, faulting, volcanism, sedimentation) and that these processes seen today (e.g., erosion, weathering crustal plate movement) are similar to those in the past. 7
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.A.2.

3.5.7.A.3. Describe the processes that formed Pennsylvania geologic structures and resources including mountains, glacial formations, water gaps and ridges. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.A.3.

3.5.7.A.4. Explain how the rock cycle affected rock formations in the state of Pennsylvania. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.A.4.

3.5.7.A.5. Distinguish between examples of rapid surface changes (e.g., landslides, earthquakes) and slow surface changes (e.g., weathering). 19
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.A.5.

3.5.7.A.6. Identify living plants and animals that are similar to fossil forms. 13
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.A.6.

### 3.5.7.B. Recognize earth resources and how they affect everyday life.

3.5.7.B.1. Identify and locate significant earth resources (e.g., rock types, oil, gas, coal deposits) in Pennsylvania. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.B.1.

3.5.7.B.2. Explain the processes involved in the formation of oil and coal in Pennsylvania. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.B.2.

3.5.7.B.3. Explain the value and uses of different earth resources (e.g., selected minerals, ores, fuel sources, agricultural uses). 29
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.B.3.

3.5.7.B.4. Compare the locations of human settlements as related to available resources. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.B.4.

### 3.5.7.C. Describe basic elements of meteorology.

3.5.7.C.1. Explain weather forecasts by interpreting weather data and symbols. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.C.1.

3.5.7.C.2. Explain the oceans' impact on local weather and the climate of a region. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.C.2.

3.5.7.C.3. Identify how cloud types, wind directions and barometric pressure changes are associated with weather patterns in different regions of the country. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.C.3.

3.5.7.C.4. Explain and illustrate the processes of cloud formation and precipitation. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.C.4.

3.5.7.C.5. Describe and illustrate the major layers of the earth's atmosphere. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.C.5.

3.5.7.C.6. Identify different air masses and global wind patterns and how they relate to the weather patterns in different regions of the U.S. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.C.6.

### 3.5.7.D. Explain the behavior and impact of the earth's water systems.

3.5.7.D.1. Explain the water cycle using the processes of evaporation and condensation. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.D.1.

3.5.7.D.2. Describe factors that affect evaporation and condensation. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.D.2.

3.5.7.D.3. Distinguish salt from fresh water (e.g., density, electrical conduction). 16
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.D.3.

3.5.7.D.4. Compare the effect of water type (e.g., polluted, fresh, salt water) and the life contained in them. 16
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.D.4.

3.5.7.D.5. Identify ocean and shoreline features, (e.g., bays, inlets, spit, tidal marshes). 16
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.5.7.D.5.

### 3.6.7.A. Explain biotechnologies that relate to related technologies of propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.

3.6.7.A.1. Identify the environmental, societal and economic impacts that waste has in the environment. 39
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.A.1.

3.6.7.A.2. Identify and explain the impact that a specific medical advancement has had on society. 26
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.A.2.

3.6.7.A.3. Explain the factors that were taken into consideration when a specific object was designed. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.A.3.

3.6.7.A.4. Define and describe how fuels and energy can be generated through the process of biomass conversion. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.A.4.

3.6.7.A.5. Identify and group basic plant and animal production processes. 21
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.A.5.

3.6.7.A.6. Explain the impact that agricultural science has had on biotechnology. 7
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.A.6.

### 3.6.7.B. Explain information technologies of encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.

3.6.7.B.1. Demonstrate the effectiveness of image generating technique to communicate a story (e.g., photography, video). 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.B.1.

3.6.7.B.2. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a graphic object designed and produced to communicate a thought or concept. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.B.2.

3.6.7.B.3. Apply basic technical drawing techniques to communicate an idea or solution to a problem. 29
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.B.3.

3.6.7.B.4. Apply the appropriate method of communications technology to communicate a thought. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.B.4.

### 3.6.7.C. Explain physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design.

3.6.7.C.1. Use knowledge of material effectiveness to solve specific construction problems (e.g., steel vs. wood bridges). 1
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.1.

3.6.7.C.2. Differentiate among the different types of construction applications (e.g., microwave tower, power plants, aircrafts). 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.2.

3.6.7.C.3. Explain basic material processes that manufactured objects undergo during production (e.g., separating, forming, combining). 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.3.

3.6.7.C.4. Evaluate a construction activity by specifying task analyses and necessary resources. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.4.

3.6.7.C.5. Explain the relationships among the basic resources needed in the production process for a specific manufactured object. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.5.

3.6.7.C.6. Explain the difference between design engineering and production engineering processes. 9
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.6.

3.6.7.C.7. Analyze manufacturing steps that affect waste and pollutants. 47
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.7.

3.6.7.C.8. Explain transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting. 31
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.8.

3.6.7.C.9. Identify and explain the workings of several mechanical power systems. 20
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.9.

3.6.7.C.10. Model and explain examples of vehicular propulsion, control, guidance, structure and suspension systems. 25
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.10.

3.6.7.C.11. Explain the limitations of land, marine, air and space transportation systems. 26
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.6.7.C.11.

### 3.7.7.A. Describe the safe and appropriate use of tools, materials and techniques to answer questions and solve problems.

3.7.7.A.1. Identify uses of tools, machines, materials, information, people, money, energy and time that meet specific design criteria. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.A.1.

3.7.7.A.2. Describe safe procedures for using tools and materials. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.A.2.

3.7.7.A.3. Assess materials for appropriateness of use. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.A.3.

### 3.7.7.B. Use appropriate instruments and apparatus to study materials.

3.7.7.B.1. Select appropriate instruments to measure the size, weight, shape and temperature of living and non-living objects.

3.7.7.B.2. Apply knowledge of different measurement systems to measure and record objects' properties.

### 3.7.7.C. Explain and demonstrate basic computer operations and concepts.

3.7.7.C.1. Know specialized computer applications used in the community. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.C.1.

3.7.7.C.2. Describe the function of advanced input and output devices (e.g., scanners, video images, plotters, projectors) and demonstrate their use. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.C.2.

3.7.7.C.3. Demonstrate age appropriate keyboarding skills and techniques. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.C.3.

### 3.7.7.D. Apply computer software to solve specific problems.

3.7.7.D.1. Identify software designed to meet specific needs (e.g., Computer Aided Drafting, design software, tutorial, financial, presentation software). 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.D.1.

3.7.7.D.2. Identify and solve basic software problems relevant to specific software applications. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.D.2.

3.7.7.D.3. Identify basic multimedia applications. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.D.3.

3.7.7.D.4. Demonstrate a basic knowledge of desktop publishing applications. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.D.4.

3.7.7.D.5. Apply intermediate skills in utilizing word processing, database and spreadsheet software. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.D.5.

3.7.7.D.6. Apply basic graphic manipulation techniques. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.D.6.

### 3.7.7.E. Explain basic computer communications systems.

3.7.7.E.1. Describe the organization and functions of the basic parts that make up the World Wide Web. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.E.1.

3.7.7.E.2. Apply advanced electronic mail functions. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.E.2.

3.7.7.E.3. Apply basic on-line research techniques to solve a specific problem. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.7.7.E.3.

### 3.8.7.A. Explain how sciences and technologies are limited in their effects and influences on society.

3.8.7.A.1. Identify and describe the unavoidable constraints of technological design. 50
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.A.1.

3.8.7.A.2. Identify changes in society as a result of a technological development. 44
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.A.2.

3.8.7.A.3. Identify and explain improvements in transportation, health, sanitation and communications as a result of advancements in science and technology and how they effect our lives. 42
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.A.3.

### 3.8.7.B. Explain how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.

3.8.7.B.1. Identify interrelationships between systems and resources. 43
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.B.1.

3.8.7.B.2. Identify and describe the resources necessary to solve a selected problem in a community and improve the quality of life. 46
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.B.2.

3.8.7.B.3. Identify and explain specific examples of how agricultural science has met human needs and has improved the quality of life. 37
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.B.3.

### 3.8.7.C. Identify the pros and cons of applying technological and scientific solutions to address problems and the effect upon society.

3.8.7.C.1. Describe the positive and negative expected and unexpected effects of specific technological developments. 50
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.C.1.

3.8.7.C.2. Describe ways technology extends and enhances human abilities. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 3.8.7.C.2.

### 4.1.7.A. Explain the role of the water cycle within a watershed.

4.1.7.A.1. Explain the water cycle. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.A.1.

4.1.7.A.2. Explain the water cycle as it relates to a watershed. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.A.2.

### 4.1.7.B. Understand the role of the watershed.

4.1.7.B.1. Identify and explain what determines the boundaries of a watershed. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.B.1.

4.1.7.B.2. Explain how water enters a watershed. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.B.2.

4.1.7.B.3. Explain factors that affect water quality and flow through a watershed. 8
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.B.3.

### 4.1.7.C. Explain the effects of water on the life of organisms in a watershed.

4.1.7.C.1. Explain how water is necessary for all life. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.C.1.

4.1.7.C.2. Explain how the physical components of aquatic systems influence the organisms that live there in terms of size, shape and physical adaptations. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.C.2.

4.1.7.C.3. Describe the life cycle of organisms that depend on water. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.C.3.

4.1.7.C.4. Identify organisms that have aquatic stages of life and describe those stages. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.C.4.

### 4.1.7.D. Explain and describe characteristics of a wetland.

4.1.7.D.1. Identify specific characteristics of wetland plants and soils. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.D.1.

4.1.7.D.2. Recognize the common types of plants and animals. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.D.2.

4.1.7.D.3. Describe different types of wetlands. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.D.3.

4.1.7.D.4. Describe the different functions of a wetland. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.D.4.

### 4.1.7.E. Describe the impact of watersheds and wetlands on people.

4.1.7.E.1. Explain the impact of watersheds and wetlands in flood control, wildlife habitats and pollution abatement. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.E.1.

4.1.7.E.2. Explain the influence of flooding on wetlands. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.1.7.E.2.

### 4.2.7.A. Know that raw materials come from natural resources.

4.2.7.A.1. Identify resources used to provide humans with energy, food, housing and water. 26
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.A.1.

4.2.7.A.2. Explain how plants and animals may be classified as natural resources. 13
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.A.2.

4.2.7.A.3. Compare means of growing or acquiring food. 21
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.A.3.

4.2.7.A.4. Identify fiber and other raw materials used in clothing and shelter production. 26
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.A.4.

4.2.7.A.5. Identify types of minerals and fossil fuels used by humans. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.A.5.

### 4.2.7.B. Examine the renewability of resources.

4.2.7.B.1. Identify renewable resources and describe their uses. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.B.1.

4.2.7.B.2. Identify nonrenewable resources and describe their uses. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.B.2.

4.2.7.B.3. Compare finished products to their original raw material. 16
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.B.3.

4.2.7.B.4. Identify the waste derived from the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources. 44
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.B.4.

4.2.7.B.5. Determine how consumption may impact the availability of resources. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.B.5.

4.2.7.B.6. Compare the time spans of renewability for fossil fuels and alternative fuels. 15
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.B.6.

### 4.2.7.C. Explain natural resource distribution.

4.2.7.C.1. Distinguish between readily available and less accessible resources. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.C.1.

4.2.7.C.2. Identify the locations of different concentrations of fossil fuels and mineral resources. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.C.2.

4.2.7.C.3. Analyze the effects of management practices on air, land and water in forestry, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife, mining and food and fiber production that is unique to different climates. 42
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.C.3.

### 4.2.7.D. Describe the role of recycling and waste management.

4.2.7.D.1. Identify materials that can be recycled in the community. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.D.1.

4.2.7.D.2. Explain the process of closing the loop in recycling. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.D.2.

4.2.7.D.3. Compare the decomposition rates of different organic materials.

4.2.7.D.4. Describe methods that could be used to reuse materials for new products. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.D.4.

4.2.7.D.5. Evaluate the costs and benefits of disposable products. 17
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.2.7.D.5.

### 4.3.7.A. Identify environmental health issues.

4.3.7.A.1. Identify various examples of long-term pollution and explain their effects on environmental health. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.A.1.

4.3.7.A.2. Identify diseases that have been associated with poor environmental quality. 16
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.A.2.

4.3.7.A.3. Describe different types of pest controls and their effects on the environment. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.A.3.

4.3.7.A.4. Identify alternative products that can be used in life to reduce pollution. 22
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.A.4.

### 4.3.7.B. Describe how human actions affect the health of the environment.

4.3.7.B.1. Identify land use practices and their relation to environmental health. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.1.

4.3.7.B.2. Explain how natural disasters affect environmental health. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.2.

4.3.7.B.3. Identify residential and industrial sources of pollution and their effects on environmental health. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.3.

4.3.7.B.4. Explain the difference between point and nonpoint source pollution. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.4.

4.3.7.B.5. Explain how nonpoint source pollution can affect the water supply and air quality. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.5.

4.3.7.B.6. Explain how acid deposition can affect water, soil and air quality. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.6.

4.3.7.B.7. Explain the relationship between resource use, reuse, recycling and environmental health. 49
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.B.7.

### 4.3.7.C. Explain biological diversity.

4.3.7.C.1. Explain the complex, interactive relationships among members of an ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.C.1.

4.3.7.C.2. Explain how diversity affects ecological integrity of the natural resources. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.3.7.C.2.

### 4.4.7.A. Explain society's standard of living in relation to agriculture.

4.4.7.A.1. Compare and contrast agricultural changes that have been made to meet society's needs. 64
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.A.1.

4.4.7.A.2. Compare and contrast how animals and plants affect agricultural systems. 21
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.A.2.

4.4.7.A.3. Compare several technological advancements and their effect(s) on the historical growth of agriculture. 33
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.A.3.

4.4.7.A.4. Compare different environmental conditions related to agricultural production, cost and quality of the product. 21
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.A.4.

### 4.4.7.B. Investigate how agricultural science has recognized the various soil types found in Pennsylvania.

4.4.7.B.1. Explain the importance of particle sizes in different soil types. 1
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.B.1.

4.4.7.B.2. Determine how water has influenced the development of Pennsylvania soil types. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.B.2.

4.4.7.B.3. Investigate how soil types have influenced the plant types used on Pennsylvania farms. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.B.3.

4.4.7.B.4. Analyze how soil types and geographic regions have impacted the profitability of Pennsylvania farms. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.B.4.

### 4.4.7.C. Explain agricultural systems' use of natural and human resources.

4.4.7.C.1. Analyze the needs of plants and animals as they relate to climate and soil conditions. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.C.1.

4.4.7.C.2. Identify the plants and animals that can be raised in the area and explain why. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.C.2.

4.4.7.C.3. Identify natural resources necessary for agricultural systems. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.C.3.

4.4.7.C.4. Compare the need for crop production to the need for animal production. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.C.4.

4.4.7.C.5. Define issues associated with food and fiber production. 21
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.C.5.

### 4.4.7.D. Explain the improvement of agricultural production through technology.

4.4.7.D.1. Compare the technologies that have advanced agricultural production. 33
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.D.1.

4.4.7.D.2. Explain how energy sources have changed to meet agricultural technology. 48
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.4.7.D.2.

### 4.5.7.A. Explain benefits and harmful effects of pests.

4.5.7.A.1. Identify different examples of pests and explain the beneficial or harmful effects of each. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.A.1.

4.5.7.A.2. Identify several locations where pests can be found and compare the effects the pests have on each location. 14
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.A.2.

### 4.5.7.B. Explain how pest management affects the environment.

4.5.7.B.1. Explain issues related to integrated pest management including biological technology, resistant varieties, chemical practices, medical technology and monitoring techniques. 70
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.B.1.

4.5.7.B.2. Describe how integrated pest management and related technology impact human activities. 63
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.B.2.

4.5.7.B.3. Identify issues related to integrated pest management that affect the environment. 69
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.B.3.

### 4.5.7.C. Explain various integrated pest management practices used in society.

4.5.7.C.1. Compare and contrast integrated pest management monitoring methods utilized in different community settings. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.C.1.

4.5.7.C.2. Compare integrated pest management to past practices. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.C.2.

4.5.7.C.3. Compare and analyze the long-term effects of using integrated pest management products. 10
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.5.7.C.3.

### 4.6.7.A. Explain the flows of energy and matter from organism to organism within an ecosystem.

4.6.7.A.1. Identify and explain the characteristics of biotic and abiotic. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.1.

4.6.7.A.2. Describe and explain the adaptations of plants and animals to their environment. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.2.

4.6.7.A.3. Demonstrate the dependency of living components in the ecosystem on the nonliving components. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.3.

4.6.7.A.4. Explain energy flow through a food web.

4.6.7.A.5. Explain the importance of the predator/prey relationship and how it maintains the balances within ecosystems. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.5.

4.6.7.A.6. Understand limiting factors and predict their effects on an organism. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.6.

4.6.7.A.7. Identify niches for producers, consumers and decomposers within an ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.7.

4.6.7.A.8. Compare and contrast the major ecosystems of Pennsylvania. 13
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.8.

4.6.7.A.9. Identify the major characteristics of a biome. 38
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.9.

4.6.7.A.10. Compare and contrast different biomes and their characteristics. 38
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.10.

4.6.7.A.11. Identify the relationship of abiotic and biotic components and explain their interaction in an ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.11.

4.6.7.A.12. Explain how different soil types determine the characteristics of ecosystems. 12
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.A.12.

### 4.6.7.B. Explain the concepts of cycles.

4.6.7.B.1. Identify and explain cycles within an ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.B.1.

4.6.7.B.2. Analyze the role of different cycles within an ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.B.2.

### 4.6.7.C. Explain how ecosystems change over time.

4.6.7.C.1. Explain how ecosystems change. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.C.1.

4.6.7.C.2. Identify the succession stages of a given ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.C.2.

4.6.7.C.3. Explain how specific organisms may change an ecosystem. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.C.3.

4.6.7.C.4. Explain a change in an ecosystem that relates to humans. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.6.7.C.4.

### 4.7.7.A. Describe diversity of plants and animals in ecosystems.

4.7.7.A.1. Select an ecosystem and describe different plants and animals that live there. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.A.1.

4.7.7.A.2. Identify adaptations in plants and animals. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.A.2.

4.7.7.A.3. Recognize that adaptations are developed over long periods of time and are passed on from one generation to the next. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.A.3.

4.7.7.A.4. Understand levels of ecosystem organization (e.g., individuals, populations, species). 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.A.4.

### 4.7.7.B. Explain how species of living organisms adapt to their environment.

4.7.7.B.1. Explain the role of individual variations in natural selection. 2
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.B.1.

4.7.7.B.2. Explain how an adaptation is an inherited structure or behavior that helps an organism survive and reproduce. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.B.2.

4.7.7.B.3. Describe how a particular trait may be selected over time and account for a species' adaptation. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.B.3.

4.7.7.B.4. Compare and contrast animals and plants that have very specific survival requirements with those that have more general requirements for survival. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.B.4.

4.7.7.B.5. Explain how living things respond to changes in their environment. 1
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.B.5.

4.7.7.B.6. Explain how one species may survive an environmental change while another might not. 3
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.B.6.

### 4.7.7.C. Explain natural or human actions in relation to the loss of species.

4.7.7.C.1. Identify natural or human impacts that cause habitat loss. 44
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.1.

4.7.7.C.2. Explain how habitat loss can affect the interaction among species and the population of a species. 42
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.2.

4.7.7.C.3. Analyze and explain the changes in an animal population over time. 39
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.3.

4.7.7.C.4. Explain how a habitat management practice affects a population. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.4.

4.7.7.C.5. Explain the differences among threatened, endangered and extinct species. 4
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.5.

4.7.7.C.6. Identify Pennsylvania plants and animals that are on the threatened or endangered list. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.6.

4.7.7.C.7. Describe state laws passed regarding threatened and endangered species in Pennsylvania. 6
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.7.

4.7.7.C.8. Explain why one species may be more susceptible to becoming endangered than another species. 5
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.7.7.C.8.

### 4.8.7.A. Describe how the development of civilization relates to the environment.

4.8.7.A.1. Explain how people use natural resources in their environment. 63
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.A.1.

4.8.7.A.2. Locate and identify natural resources in different parts of the world. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.A.2.

4.8.7.A.3. Compare and contrast how people use natural resources throughout the world. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.A.3.

### 4.8.7.B. Explain how people use natural resources.

4.8.7.B.1. Describe how natural resources are used for survival. 34
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.B.1.

4.8.7.B.2. Explain how natural resources and technological changes have affected the development of civilizations. 46
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.B.2.

4.8.7.B.3. Explain how climate and extreme weather events (e.g., drought, flood) influence people's lives. 11
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.B.3.

### 4.8.7.C. Explain how human activities may affect local, regional and national environments.

4.8.7.C.1. Describe what effect consumption and related generation of wastes have on the environment. 44
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.C.1.

4.8.7.C.2. Explain how a particular human activity has changed the local area over the years. 44
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.C.2.

### 4.8.7.D. Explain the importance of maintaining the natural resources at the local, state and national levels.

4.8.7.D.1. Explain how human activities and natural events have affected ecosystems. 50
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.D.1.

4.8.7.D.2. Explain how conservation practices have influenced ecosystems. 50
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.D.2.

4.8.7.D.3. Define the roles of Pennsylvania agencies that deal with natural resources. 43
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.8.7.D.3.

### 4.9.7.A. Explain the role of environmental laws and regulations.

4.9.7.A.1. Identify and explain environmental laws and regulations (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act, Act 26 on Agricultural Education). 45
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.9.7.A.1.

4.9.7.A.2. Explain the role of local and state agencies in enforcing environmental laws and regulations (e.g., Department of Environmental Protection, Department of Agriculture, Game Commission). 45
Suggested Titles for Pennsylvania Science State Standard 4.9.7.A.2.

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