Pennsylvania State Standards for Science: Grade 11

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

PA.3.1.12. Science and Technology: Unifying Themes: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.1.12.A. Apply concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control to solve complex technological problems.

3.1.12.A.1. Apply knowledge of control systems concept by designing and modeling control systems that solve specific problems.

3.1.12.A.2. Apply systems analysis to predict results.

3.1.12.A.3. Analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship among subsystems and the system itself.

3.1.12.A.4. Compare and contrast several systems that could be applied to solve a single problem.

3.1.12.A.5. Evaluate the causes of a system's inefficiency.

3.1.12.B. Apply concepts of models as a method to predict and understand science and technology.

3.1.12.B.1. Evaluate technological processes by collecting data and applying mathematical models (e.g., process control).

3.1.12.B.2. Apply knowledge of complex physical models to interpret data and apply mathematical models.

3.1.12.B.3. Appraise the importance of computer models in interpreting science and technological systems.

3.1.12.C. Assess and apply patterns in science and technology.

3.1.12.C.1. Assess and apply recurring patterns in natural and technological systems.

3.1.12.C.2. Compare and contrast structure and function relationships as they relate to patterns.

3.1.12.C.3. Assess patterns in nature using mathematical formulas.

3.1.12.D. Analyze scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.

3.1.12.D.1. Compare and contrast various forms of dimensional analysis.

3.1.12.D.2. Assess the use of several units of measurement to the same problem.

3.1.12.D.3. Analyze and apply appropriate measurement scales when collecting data.

3.1.12.E. Evaluate change in nature, physical systems and man made systems.

3.1.12.E.1. Evaluate fundamental science and technology concepts and their development over time (e.g., DNA, cellular respiration, unified field theory, energy measurement, automation, miniaturization, Copernican and Ptolemaic universe theories).

3.1.12.E.2. Analyze how models, systems and technologies have changed over time (e.g., germ theory, theory of evolution, solar system, cause of fire).

3.1.12.E.3. Explain how correlation of variables does not necessarily imply causation.

3.1.12.E.4. Evaluate the patterns of change within a technology (e.g., changes in engineering in the automotive industry).

PA.3.2.12. Science and Technology: Inquiry and Design: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.2.12.A. Evaluate the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.

3.2.12.A.1. Know and use the ongoing scientific processes to continually improve and better understand how things work.

3.2.12.A.2. Critically evaluate the status of existing theories (e.g., germ theory of disease, wave theory of light, classification of subatomic particles, theory of evolution, epidemiology of aids).

3.2.12.B. Evaluate experimental information for appropriateness and adherence to relevant science processes.

3.2.12.B.1. Evaluate experimental data correctly within experimental limits.

3.2.12.B.2. Judge that conclusions are consistent and logical with experimental conditions.

3.2.12.B.3. Interpret results of experimental research to predict new information or improve a solution.

3.2.12.C. Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve multi-step problems.

3.2.12.C.1. Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.

3.2.12.C.2. Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.

3.2.12.C.3. Design an investigation with adequate control and limited variables to investigate a question.

3.2.12.C.4. Organize experimental information using analytic and descriptive techniques.

3.2.12.C.5. Evaluate the significance of experimental information in answering the question.

3.2.12.C.6. Project additional questions from a research study that could be studied.

3.2.12.D. Analyze and use the technological design process to solve problems.

3.2.12.D.1. Assess all aspects of the problem, prioritize the necessary information and formulate questions that must be answered.

3.2.12.D.2. Propose, develop and appraise the best solution and develop alternative solutions.

3.2.12.D.3. Implement and assess the solution.

3.2.12.D.4. Evaluate and assess the solution, redesign and improve as necessary.

3.2.12.D.5. Communicate and assess the process and evaluate and present the impacts of the solution.

PA.3.3.12. Science and Technology: Biological Sciences: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.3.12.A. Explain the relationship between structure and function at all levels of organization.

3.3.12.A.1. Identify and explain interactions among organisms (e.g., mutually beneficial, harmful relationships).

3.3.12.A.2. Explain and analyze the relationship between structure and function at the molecular, cellular and organ-system level.

3.3.12.A.3. Describe and explain structural and functional relationships in each of the five (or six) kingdoms.

3.3.12.A.4. Explain significant biological diversity found in each of the biomes.

3.3.12.B. Analyze the chemical and structural basis of living organisms.

3.3.12.B.1. Identify and describe factors affecting metabolic function (e.g., temperature, acidity, hormones).

3.3.12.B.2. Evaluate metabolic activities using experimental knowledge of enzymes.

3.3.12.B.3. Evaluate relationships between structure and functions of different anatomical parts given their structure.

3.3.12.B.4. Describe potential impact of genome research on the biochemistry and physiology of life.

3.3.12.C. Explain gene inheritance and expression at the molecular level.

3.3.12.C.1. Analyze gene expression at the molecular level.

3.3.12.C.2. Describe the roles of nucleic acids in cellular reproduction and protein synthesis.

3.3.12.C.3. Describe genetic engineering techniques, applications and impacts.

3.3.12.C.4. Explain birth defects from the standpoint of embryological development and/or changes in genetic makeup.

3.3.12.D. Analyze the theory of evolution.

3.3.12.D.1. Examine human history by describing the progression from early hominids to modern humans.

3.3.12.D.2. Apply the concept of natural selection as a central concept in illustrating evolution theory.

PA.3.4.12. Science and Technology: Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.4.12.A. Apply concepts about the structure and properties of matter.

3.4.12.A.1. Apply rules of systematic nomenclature and formula writing to chemical substances.

3.4.12.A.2. Classify and describe, in equation form, types of chemical and nuclear reactions.

3.4.12.A.3. Explain how radioactive isotopes that are subject to decay can be used to estimate the age of materials.

3.4.12.A.4. Explain how the forces that bind solids, liquids and gases affect their properties.

3.4.12.A.5. Characterize and identify important classes of compounds (e.g., acids, bases, salts).

3.4.12.A.6. Apply the conservation of energy concept to fields as diverse as mechanics, nuclear particles and studies of the origin of the universe.

3.4.12.A.7. Apply the predictability of nuclear decay to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.

3.4.12.A.8. Quantify the properties of matter (e.g., density, solubility coefficients) by applying mathematical formulas.

3.4.12.B. Apply and analyze energy sources and conversions and their relationship to heat and temperature.

3.4.12.B.1. Determine the heat involved in illustrative chemical reactions.

3.4.12.B.2. Evaluate mathematical formulas that calculate the efficiency of specific chemical and mechanical systems.

3.4.12.B.3. Use knowledge of oxidation and reduction to balance complex reactions

3.4.12.B.4. Apply appropriate thermodynamic concepts (e.g., conservation, entropy) to solve problems relating to energy and heat.

3.4.12.C. Apply the principles of motion and force.

3.4.12.C.1. Evaluate wave properties of frequency, wavelength and speed as applied to sound and light through different media.

3.4.12.C.2. Propose and produce modifications to specific mechanical power systems that will improve their efficiency.

3.4.12.C.3. Analyze the principles of translational motion, velocity and acceleration as they relate to free fall and projectile motion.

3.4.12.C.4. Analyze the principles of rotational motion to solve problems relating to angular momentum, and torque.

3.4.12.C.5. Interpret a model that illustrates circular motion and acceleration.

3.4.12.C.6. Describe inertia, motion, equilibrium, and action/reaction concepts through words, models and mathematical symbols.

3.4.12.D. Analyze the essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe.

3.4.12.D.1. Analyze the Big Bang Theory's use of gravitation and nuclear reaction to explain a possible origin of the universe.

3.4.12.D.2. Compare the use of visual, radio and x-ray telescopes to collect data regarding the structure and evolution of the universe.

3.4.12.D.3. Correlate the use of the special theory of relativity and the life of a star.

PA.3.5.12. Science and Technology: Earth Sciences: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.5.12.A. Analyze and evaluate earth features and processes that change the earth.

3.5.12.A.1. Apply knowledge of geophysical processes to explain the formation and degradation of earth structures (e.g., mineral deposition, cave formations, soil composition).

3.5.12.A.2. Interpret geological evidence supporting evolution.

3.5.12.A.3. Apply knowledge of radioactive decay to assess the age of various earth features and objects.

3.5.12.B. Analyze the availability, location and extraction of earth resources.

3.5.12.B.1. Describe how the location of earth's major resources has affected a country's strategic decisions.

3.5.12.B.2. Compare locations of earth features and country boundaries.

3.5.12.B.3. Analyze the impact of resources (e.g., coal deposits, rivers) on the life of Pennsylvania's settlements and cities.

3.5.12.C. Analyze atmospheric energy transfers.

3.5.12.C.1. Describe how weather and climate involve the transfer of energy in and out of the atmosphere.

3.5.12.C.2. Explain how unequal heating of the air, ocean and land produces wind and ocean currents.

3.5.12.C.3. Analyze the energy transformations that occur during the greenhouse effect and predict the long-term effects of increased pollutant levels in the atmosphere.

3.5.12.C.4. Analyze the mechanisms that drive a weather phenomena (e.g., El Nino, hurricane, tornado) using the correlation of three methods of heat energy transfer.

3.5.12.D. Analyze the principles and history of hydrology.

3.5.12.D.1. Analyze the operation and effectiveness of a water purification and desalination system.

3.5.12.D.2. Evaluate the pros and cons of surface water appropriation for commercial and electrical use.

3.5.12.D.3. Analyze the historical development of water use in Pennsylvania (e.g., recovery of Lake Erie).

3.5.12.D.4. Compare the marine life and type of water found in the intertidal, neritic and bathyal zones.

PA.3.6.12. Science and Technology: Technology Education: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.6.12.A. Analyze biotechnologies that relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.

3.6.12.A.1. Analyze and solve a complex production process problem using biotechnologies (e.g., hydroponics, fish farming, crop propagation).

3.6.12.A.2. Analyze specific examples where engineering has impacted society in protection, personal health application or physical enhancement.

3.6.12.A.3. Appraise and evaluate the cause and effect and subsequent environmental, economic and societal impacts that result from biomass and biochemical conversion.

3.6.12.A.4. Evaluate and apply biotechnical processes to complex plant and animal production methods.

3.6.12.A.5. Apply knowledge of biochemical-related technologies to propose alternatives to hazardous waste treatment.

3.6.12.A.6. Apply knowledge of agricultural science to solve or improve a biochemical related problem.

3.6.12.B. Analyze knowledge of information technologies of processes encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.

3.6.12.B.1. Apply and analyze advanced information techniques to produce a complex image that effectively conveys a message (e.g., desktop publishing, audio and/or video production).

3.6.12.B.2. Analyze and evaluate a message designed and produced using still, motion and animated communication techniques.

3.6.12.B.3. Describe the operation of fiber optic, microwave and satellite informational systems.

3.6.12.B.4. Apply various graphic and electronic information techniques to solve real world problems (e.g., data organization and analysis, forecasting, interpolation).

3.6.12.C. Analyze physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design to real world problems.

3.6.12.C.1. Apply knowledge of construction technology by designing, planning and applying all the necessary resources to successfully solve a construction problem.

3.6.12.C.2. Compare resource options in solving a specific manufacturing problem.

3.6.12.C.3. Analyze and apply complex skills needed to process materials in complex manufacturing enterprises.

3.6.12.C.4. Apply advanced information collection and communication techniques to successfully convey solutions to specific construction problems.

3.6.12.C.5. Assess the importance of capital on specific construction applications.

3.6.12.C.6. Analyze the positive and negative qualities of several different types of materials as they would relate to specific construction applications.

3.6.12.C.7. Analyze transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.

3.6.12.C.8. Analyze the concepts of vehicular propulsion, guidance, control, suspension and structural systems while designing and producing specific complex transportation systems.

PA.3.7.12. Science and Technology: Technological Devices: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.7.12.A. Apply advanced tools, materials and techniques to answer complex questions.

3.7.12.A.1. Demonstrate the safe use of complex tools and machines within their specifications.

3.7.12.A.2. Select and safely apply appropriate tools, materials and processes necessary to solve complex problems that could result in more than one solution.

3.7.12.A.3. Evaluate and use technological resources to solve complex multi-step problems.

3.7.12.B. Evaluate appropriate instruments and apparatus to accurately measure materials and processes.

3.7.12.B.1. Apply and evaluate the use of appropriate instruments to accurately measure scientific and technologic phenomena within the error limits of the equipment.

3.7.12.B.2. Evaluate the appropriate use of different measurement scales (macro and micro).

3.7.12.B.3. Evaluate the utility and advantages of a variety of absolute and relative measurement scales for their appropriate application.

3.7.12.C. Evaluate computer operations and concepts as to their effectiveness to solve specific problems.

3.7.12.C.1. Describe and demonstrate atypical software installation.

3.7.12.C.2. Analyze and solve hardware and advanced software problems.

3.7.12.C.3. Assess and apply multiple input and output devices to solve specific problems.

3.7.12.D. Evaluate the effectiveness of computer software to solve specific problems.

3.7.12.D.1. Evaluate the effectiveness of software to produce an output and demonstrate the process.

3.7.12.D.2. Design and apply advanced multimedia techniques.

3.7.12.D.3. Analyze, select and apply the appropriate software to solve complex problems.

3.7.12.D.4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the computer as a presentation tool.

3.7.12.D.5. Analyze the legal responsibilities of computer users.

3.7.12.E. Assess the effectiveness of computer communications systems.

3.7.12.E.1. Assess the effectiveness of a computer based communications system.

3.7.12.E.2. Transfer files among different computer platforms.

3.7.12.E.3. Analyze the effectiveness of on-line information resources to meet the needs for collaboration, research, publications, communications and productivity.

3.7.12.E.4. Apply knowledge of protocol standards to solve connectivity problems.

PA.3.8.12. Science and Technology: Science, Technology and Human Endeavors: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

3.8.12.A. Synthesize and evaluate the interactions and constraints of science and technology on society.

3.8.12.A.1. Compare and contrast how scientific and technological knowledge is both shared and protected.

3.8.12.A.2. Evaluate technological developments that have changed the way humans do work and discuss their impacts (e.g., genetically engineered crops).

3.8.12.A.3. Evaluate socially proposed limitations of scientific research and technological application.

3.8.12.B. Apply the use of ingenuity and technological resources to solve specific societal needs and improve the quality of life.

3.8.12.B.1. Apply appropriate tools, materials and processes to solve complex problems.

3.8.12.B.2. Use knowledge of human abilities to design or modify technologies that extend and enhance human abilities.

3.8.12.B.3. Apply appropriate tools, materials and processes to physical, informational or biotechnological systems to identify and recommend solutions to international problems.

3.8.12.B.4. Apply knowledge of agricultural science to develop a solution that will improve on a human need or want.

3.8.12.C. Evaluate the consequences and impacts of scientific and technological solutions.

3.8.12.C.1. Propose solutions to specific scientific and technological applications, identifying possible financial considerations.

3.8.12.C.2. Analyze scientific and technological solutions through the use of risk/benefit analysis.

3.8.12.C.3. Analyze and communicate the positive or negative impacts that a recent technological invention had on society.

3.8.12.C.4. Evaluate and describe potential impacts from emerging technologies and the consequences of not keeping abreast of technological advancements (e.g., assessment alternatives, risks, benefits, costs, economic impacts, constraints).

PA.4.1.12. Environment and Ecology: Watersheds and Wetlands: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.1.12.A. Categorize stream order in a watershed.

4.1.12.A.1. Explain the concept of stream order.

4.1.12.A.2. Identify the order of watercourses within a major river's watershed.

4.1.12.A.3. Compare and contrast the physical differences found in the stream continuum from headwater to mouth.

4.1.12.B. Explain the relationships that exist within watersheds in the United States.

4.1.12.B.1. Understand that various ecosystems may be contained in a watershed.

4.1.12.B.2. Examine and describe the ecosystems contained within a specific watershed.

4.1.12.B.3. Identify and describe the major watersheds in the United States.

4.1.12.C. Analyze the parameters of a watershed.

4.1.12.C.1. Interpret physical, chemical and biological data as a means of assessing the environmental quality of a watershed.

4.1.12.C.2. Apply appropriate techniques in the analysis of a watershed (e.g., water quality, biological diversity, erosion, sedimentation).

4.1.12.D. Analyze the complex and diverse ecosystems of wetlands.

4.1.12.D.1. Explain the functions of habitat, nutrient production, migration stopover and groundwater recharge as it relates to wetlands.

4.1.12.D.2. Explain the dynamics of a wetland ecosystem.

4.1.12.D.3. Describe and analyze different types of wetlands.

4.1.12.E. Evaluate the trade-offs, costs and benefits of conserving watersheds and wetlands.

4.1.12.E.1. Evaluate the effects of natural events on watershed and wetlands.

4.1.12.E.2. Evaluate the effects of human activities on watersheds and wetlands.

PA.4.2.12. Environment and Ecology: Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.2.12.A. Analyze the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

4.2.12.A.1. Explain the effects on the environment and sustainability through the use of nonrenewable resources.

4.2.12.A.2 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of reusing our natural resources.

4.2.12.B. Analyze factors affecting the availability of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

4.2.12.B.1. Evaluate the use of natural resources and offer approaches for using them while diminishing waste.

4.2.12.B.2. Compare the economics of different areas based on the availability and accessibility of the natural resources.

4.2.12.C. Analyze factors that influence the availability of natural resources.

4.2.12.C.1. Compare the use of natural resources in different countries.

4.2.12.C.2. Determine how delivery systems influence the availability of resources at the local, regional and national level.

4.2.12.D. Evaluate solid waste management practices.

4.2.12.D.1. Examine and explain the path of a recyclable material from collection to waste, reuse or recycling identifying the market forces.

4.2.12.D.2. Understand current regulations concerning recycling and solid waste.

4.2.12.D.3. Research new technologies in the use, reuse or recycling of materials.

PA.4.3.12. Environment and Ecology: Environmental Health: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.3.12.A. Analyze the complexity of environmental health issues.

4.3.12.A.1. Identify environmental health issues and explain how they have been addressed on a worldwide level.

4.3.12.A.2. Analyze efforts to prevent, control and/or reduce pollution through cost and benefit analysis and risk management.

4.3.12.A.3. Describe the impact of occupational exposures as they relate to environmental health issues.

4.3.12.A.4. Identify invisible pollutants and explain their effects on human health.

4.3.12.A.5. Explain the relationship between wind direction and velocity as it relates to dispersal and occurrence of pollutants.

4.3.12.A.6. Explain the different disposal methods used for toxic and hazardous waste.

4.3.12.B. Analyze the local, regional and national impacts of environmental health.

4.3.12.B.1. Analyze the cost of natural disasters in both dollars and loss of natural habitat.

4.3.12.B.2. Research and analyze the local, state and national laws that deal with point and nonpoint source pollution; evaluate the costs and benefits of these laws.

4.3.12.B.3. Explain mitigation and its role in environmental health.

4.3.12.B.4. Explain industry's initiatives to meet state and federal mandates on clean air and water.

4.3.12.B.5. Describe the impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on the Chesapeake Bay.

4.3.12.B.6. Identify and evaluate the costs and benefits of laws regulating air and water quality and waste disposal.

4.3.12.C. Analyze the need for a healthy environment.

4.3.12.C.1. Research the relationship of some chronic diseases to an environmental pollutant.

4.3.12.C.2. Explain how man-made systems may affect the environment.

PA.4.4.12. Environment and Ecology: Agriculture and Society: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.4.12.A. Analyze the management practices in the agriculture business.

4.4.12.A.1. Define the components of an agriculture system that would result in a minimal waste of resources.

4.4.12.A.2. Identify the diversity in crop production and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of such diversity.

4.4.12.A.3. Research and analyze environmental practices related to agricultural systems.

4.4.12.A.4. Analyze the effects of agricultural practices on the economy.

4.4.12.A.5. Analyze the impact of nutrient management laws on Pennsylvania agriculture.

4.4.12.A.6. Assess the role of agriculture cooperatives.

4.4.12.B. Describe how agricultural science has influenced biotechnology.

4.4.12.B.1. Investigate how bio-engineered crops may influence the food supply.

4.4.12.B.2. Analyze the use of specific bacteria for the control of agricultural pests.

4.4.12.B.3. Evaluate the use of feed additives in shifting metabolism to increase muscle mass and reduce fat in farm animals.

4.4.12.C. Analyze and research the social, political and economic factors that affect agricultural systems.

4.4.12.C.1. Analyze the costs and benefits associated with agriculture practices and how they affect economic and human needs.

4.4.12.C.2. Analyze the costs and benefits of agriculture research practices in society.

4.4.12.C.3. Research the use of by-products that are the results of agriculture production (e.g., manure handling, bird feathers).

4.4.12.D. Analyze research and development activities as they relate to agriculture.

4.4.12.D.1. Analyze the role of research, development and technology as it relates to the food and fiber system.

4.4.12.D.2. Research and analyze energy sources used and/or generated by producing, processing and marketing agricultural products.

PA.4.5.12. Environment and Ecology: Integrated Pest Management: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.5.12.A. Research integrated pest management systems.

4.5.12.A.1. Analyze the threshold limits of pests and the need for intervention in a managed environment.

4.5.12.A.2. Research the types of germicides and analyze their effects on homes industry, hospitals and institutions.

4.5.12.A.3. Design and explain an integrated pest management plan that uses a range of pest controls.

4.5.12.B. Research and analyze integrated pest management practices globally.

4.5.12.B.1. Research worldwide integrated pest management systems and evaluate the level of impact.

4.5.12.B.2. Research and analyze the international regulations that exist related to integrated pest management.

4.5.12.B.3. Explain the complexities associated with moving from one level of control to the next with different integrated pest management practices and compare the related costs of each system.

4.5.12.C. Analyze the historical significance of integrated pest management on society.

4.5.12.C.1. Explain the dynamics of integrated pest management practices and their relative effects upon society.

4.5.12.C.2. Identify historic events affecting integrated pest management and cite the practices used (e.g., avian flu, bubonic plague, potato blight).

4.5.12.C.3. Research and analyze the long-term effects of pest management practices on the environment.

PA.4.6.12. Environment and Ecology: Ecosystems and their Interactions: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.6.12.A. Analyze the interdependence of an ecosystem.

4.6.12.A.1. Analyze the relationships among components of an ecosystem.

4.6.12.A.2. Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow within an ecosystem.

4.6.12.A.3. Explain limiting factors and their impact on carrying capacity.

4.6.12.A.4. Understand how biological diversity impacts the stability of an ecosystem.

4.6.12.A.5. Analyze the positive or negative impacts of outside influences on an ecosystem.

4.6.12.A.6. Analyze how different land use practices can affect the quality of soils.

4.6.12.B. Analyze the impact of cycles on the ecosystem.

4.6.12.B.1. Evaluate the materials necessary for natural cycles.

4.6.12.B.2. Explain the processes involved in the natural cycles.

4.6.12.C. Analyze how human action and natural changes affect the balance within an ecosystem.

4.6.12.C.1. Analyze the effects of substances that move through natural cycles.

4.6.12.C.2. Analyze the effects of natural occurrences and their effects on ecosystems.

4.6.12.C.3. Analyze effects of human action on an ecosystem.

4.6.12.C.4. Compare the stages of succession and how they influence the cycles existing in an ecosystem.

PA.4.7.12. Environment and Ecology: Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.7.12.A. Analyze biological diversity as it relates to the stability of an ecosystem.

4.7.12.A.1. Examine and explain what happens to an ecosystem as biological diversity changes.

4.7.12.A.2. Explain the relationship between species' loss and bio-diversity.

4.7.12.A.3. Examine and explain how a specialized interaction between two species may affect the survival of both species.

4.7.12.B. Examine the effects of extinction, both natural and human caused, on the environment.

4.7.12.B.1. Predict how human or natural action can produce change to which organisms cannot adapt.

4.7.12.B.2. Identify species that became extinct through natural causes and explain how that occurred.

4.7.12.B.3. Identify a species that became extinct due to human actions and explain what occurred.

4.7.12.C. Analyze the effects of threatened, endangered or extinct species on human and natural systems.

4.7.12.C.1. Identify and explain how a species' increase, decline or elimination affects the ecosystem and/or human social, cultural and economic structures.

4.7.12.C.2. Explain why natural populations do not remain constant.

4.7.12.C.3. Analyze management strategies regarding threatened or endangered species.

4.7.12.C.4. Identify laws, agreements or treaties at national or international levels regarding threatened or endangered species.

4.7.12.C.5. Analyze the role of zoos and wildlife preserves on species that have been identified as threatened or endangered.

4.7.12.C.6. Examine the influence of wildlife management in preserving different species in Pennsylvania (e.g., bobcat, elk, bald eagle).

PA.4.8.12. Environment and Ecology: Humans and the Environment: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.8.12.A. Explain how technology has influenced the sustainability of natural resources over time.

4.8.12.A.1. Describe how technology has changed the use of natural resources by business and industry.

4.8.12.A.2. Analyze the effect of natural resource conservation on a product over time (e.g., automobile manufacturing, aluminum can recycling, paper products).

4.8.12.B. Analyze technology's role on natural resource sustainability.

4.8.12.B.1. Explain how technology has decreased the use of raw natural resources.

4.8.12.B.2. Explain how technology has impacted the efficiency of the use of natural resources.

4.8.12.B.3. Analyze the role of technology in the reduction of pollution.

4.8.12.C. Analyze how pollution has changed in quality, variety and toxicity as the United States developed its industrial base.

4.8.12.C.1. Analyze historical pollution trends and project them for the future.

4.8.12.C.2. Compare and contrast historical and current pollution levels at a given location.

4.8.12.D. Analyze the international implications of environmental occurrences.

4.8.12.D.1. Identify natural occurrences that have international impact (e.g., El Nino, volcano eruptions, earthquakes).

4.8.12.D.2. Analyze environmental issues and their international implications.

PA.4.9.12. Environment and Ecology: Environmental Laws and Regulations: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

4.9.12.A. Analyze environmental laws and regulations as they relate to environmental issues.

4.9.12.A.1. Analyze and explain how issues lead to environmental law or regulation (e.g., underground storage tanks, regulation of water discharges, hazardous, solid and liquid industrial waste, endangered species).

4.9.12.A.2. Compare and contrast environmental laws and regulations that may have a positive or negative impact on the environment and the economy.

4.9.12.A.3. Research and describe the effects of an environmental law or regulation and how it has impacted the environment.

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