Pennsylvania State Standards for Science: Grade 10
Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.
PA.3.1.10. Science and Technology: Unifying Themes: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.1.10.A. Discriminate among the concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control in solving technological problems.
3.1.10.A.1. Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system (e.g., role of thermostat in an engine, pressure switch).
3.1.10.A.2. Describe the interrelationships among inputs, processes, outputs, feedback and control in specific systems.
3.1.10.A.3. Explain the concept of system redesign and apply it to improve technological systems.
3.1.10.A.4. Apply the universal systems model to illustrate specific solutions and troubleshoot specific problems.
3.1.10.A.5. Analyze and describe the effectiveness of systems to solve specific problems.
3.1.10.B. Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.
3.1.10.B.1. Distinguish between different types of models and modeling techniques and apply their appropriate use in specific applications (e.g., kinetic gas theory, DNA).
3.1.10.B.2. Examine the advantages of using models to demonstrate processes and outcomes (e.g., blue print analysis, structural stability).
3.1.10.B.3. Apply mathematical models to science and technology.
3.1.10.C. Apply patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
3.1.10.C.1. Examine and describe recurring patterns that form the basis of biological classification, chemical periodicity, geological order and astronomical order.
3.1.10.C.2. Examine and describe stationary physical patterns.
3.1.10.C.3. Examine and describe physical patterns in motion.
3.1.10.D. Apply scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
3.1.10.D.1. Apply dimensional analysis and scale as a ratio.
3.1.10.D.2. Convert one scale to another.
3.1.10.E. Describe patterns of change in nature, physical and man made systems.
3.1.10.E.1. Describe how fundamental science and technology concepts are used to solve practical problems (e.g., momentum, Newton's laws of universal gravitation, tectonics, conservation of mass and energy, cell theory, theory of evolution, atomic theory, theory of relativity, Pasteur's germ theory, relativity, heliocentric theory, gas laws, feedback systems).
3.1.10.E.2. Recognize that stable systems often involve underlying dynamic changes (e.g., a chemical reaction at equilibrium has molecules reforming continuously).
3.1.10.E.3. Describe the effects of error in measurements.
3.1.10.E.4. Describe changes to matter caused by heat, cold, light or chemicals using a rate function.
PA.3.2.10. Science and Technology: Inquiry and Design: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.2.10.A. Apply knowledge and understanding about the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
3.2.10.A.1. Compare and contrast scientific theories and beliefs.
3.2.10.A.2. Know that science uses both direct and indirect observation means to study the world and the universe.
3.2.10.A.3. Integrate new information into existing theories and explain implied results.
3.2.10.B. Apply process knowledge and organize scientific and technological phenomena in varied ways.
3.2.10.B.1. Describe materials using precise quantitative and qualitative skills based on observations.
3.2.10.B.2. Develop appropriate scientific experiments: raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing, controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, and producing solutions.
3.2.10.B.3. Use process skills to make inferences and predictions using collected information and to communicate, using space / time relationships, defining operationally.
3.2.10.C. Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
3.2.10.C.1. Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
3.2.10.C.2. Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
3.2.10.C.3. Design an investigation with adequate control and limited variables to investigate a question.
3.2.10.C.4. Conduct a multiple step experiment.
3.2.10.C.5. Organize experimental information using a variety of analytic methods.
3.2.10.C.6. Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
3.2.10.C.7. Suggest additional steps that might be done experimentally.
3.2.10.D. Identify and apply the technological design process to solve problems.
3.2.10.D.1. Examine the problem, rank all necessary information and all questions that must be answered.
3.2.10.D.2. Propose and analyze a solution.
3.2.10.D.3. Implement the solution.
3.2.10.D.4. Evaluate the solution, test, redesign and improve as necessary.
3.2.10.D.5. Communicate the process and evaluate and present the impacts of the solution.
PA.3.3.10. Science and Technology: Biological Sciences: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.3.10.A. Explain the structural and functional similarities and differences found among living things.
3.3.10.A.1. Identify and characterize major life forms according to their placement in existing classification groups.
3.3.10.A.2. Explain the relationship between structure and function at the molecular and cellular levels.
3.3.10.A.3. Describe organizing schemes of classification keys.
3.3.10.A.4. Identify and characterize major life forms by kingdom, phyla, class and order.
3.3.10.B. Describe and explain the chemical and structural basis of living organisms.
3.3.10.B.1. Describe the relationship between the structure of organic molecules and the function they serve in living organisms.
3.3.10.B.2. Identify the specialized structures and regions of the cell and the functions of each.
3.3.10.B.3. Explain how cells store and use information to guide their functions.
3.3.10.B.4. Explain cell functions and processes in terms of chemical reactions and energy changes.
3.3.10.C. Describe how genetic information is inherited and expressed.
3.3.10.C.1. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
3.3.10.C.2. Describe mutations' effects on a trait's expression.
3.3.10.C.3. Distinguish different reproductive patterns in living things (e.g., budding, spores, fission).
3.3.10.C.4. Compare random and selective breeding practices and their results (e.g., antibiotic resistant bacteria).
3.3.10.C.5. Explain the relationship among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
3.3.10.C.6. Explain different types of inheritance (e.g., multiple allele, sex-influenced traits).
3.3.10.C.7. Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis as it relates to gene expression.
3.3.10.D. Explain the mechanisms of the theory of evolution.
3.3.10.D.1. Analyze data from fossil records, similarities in anatomy and physiology, embryological studies and DNA studies that are relevant to the theory of evolution.
3.3.10.D.2. Explain the role of mutations and gene recombination in changing a population of organisms.
3.3.10.D.3. Compare modern day descendants of extinct species and propose possible scientific accounts for their present appearance.
3.3.10.D.4. Describe the factors (e.g., isolation, differential reproduction) affecting gene frequency in a population over time and their consequences.
3.3.10.D.5. Describe and differentiate between the roles of natural selection and genetic drift.
3.3.10.D.6. Describe changes that illustrate major events in the earth's development based on a time line.
3.3.10.D.7. Explain why natural selection can act only on inherited traits.
3.3.10.D.8. Apply the concept of natural selection to illustrate and account for a species' survival, extinction or change over time.
PA.3.4.10. Science and Technology: Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.4.10.A. Explain concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
3.4.10.A.1. Know that atoms are composed of even smaller sub-atomic structures whose properties are measurable.
3.4.10.A.2. Explain the repeating pattern of chemical properties by using the repeating patterns of atomic structure within the periodic table.
3.4.10.A.3. Predict the behavior of gases through the use of Boyle's, Charles' or the ideal gas law, in everyday situations.
3.4.10.A.4. Describe phases of matter according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory.
3.4.10.A.5. Explain the formation of compounds and their resulting properties using bonding theories (ionic and covalent).
3.4.10.A.6. Recognize formulas for simple inorganic compounds.
3.4.10.A.7. Describe various types of chemical reactions by applying the laws of conservation of mass and energy.
3.4.10.A.8. Apply knowledge of mixtures to appropriate separation techniques.
3.4.10.A.9. Understand that carbon can form several types of compounds.
3.4.10.B. Analyze energy sources and transfers of heat.
3.4.10.B.1. Determine the efficiency of chemical systems by applying mathematical formulas.
3.4.10.B.2. Use knowledge of chemical reactions to generate an electrical current.
3.4.10.B.3. Evaluate energy changes in chemical reactions.
3.4.10.B.4. Use knowledge of conservation of energy and momentum to explain common phenomena (e.g., refrigeration system, rocket propulsion).
3.4.10.B.5. Explain resistance, current and electro-motive force (Ohm's Law).
3.4.10.C. Distinguish among the principles of force and motion.
3.4.10.C.1. Identify the relationship of electricity and magnetism as two aspects of a single electromagnetic force.
3.4.10.C.2. Identify elements of simple machines in compound machines.
3.4.10.C.3. Explain fluid power systems through the design and construction of appropriate models.
3.4.10.C.4. Describe sound effects (e.g., Doppler effect, amplitude, frequency, reflection, refraction, absorption, sonar, seismic).
3.4.10.C.5. Describe light effects (e.g., Doppler effect, dispersion, absorption, emission spectra, polarization, interference).
3.4.10.C.6. Describe and measure the motion of sound, light and other objects.
3.4.10.C.7. Know Newton's laws of motion (including inertia, action and reaction) and gravity and apply them to solve problems related to forces and mass.
3.4.10.C.8. Determine the efficiency of mechanical systems by applying mathematical formulas.
3.4.10.D. Explain essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe.
3.4.10.D.1. Compare the basic structures of the universe (e.g., galaxy types, nova, black holes, neutron stars).
3.4.10.D.2. Describe the structure and life cycle of star, using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
3.4.10.D.3. Describe the nuclear processes involved in energy production in a star.
3.4.10.D.4. Explain the 'red-shift' and Hubble's use of it to determine stellar distance and movement.
3.4.10.D.5. Compare absolute versus apparent star magnitude and their relation to stellar distance.
3.4.10.D.6. Explain the impact of the Copernican and Newtonian thinking on man's view of the universe.
3.4.10.D.7. Identify and analyze the findings of several space instruments in regard to the extent and composition of the solar system and universe.
PA.3.5.10. Science and Technology: Earth Sciences: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.5.10.A. Relate earth features and processes that change the earth.
3.5.10.A.1. Illustrate and explain plate tectonics as the mechanism of continental movement and sea floor changes.
3.5.10.A.2. Compare examples of change to the earth's surface over time as they related to continental movement and ocean basin formation (e.g., Delaware, Susquehanna, Ohio Rivers system formations, dynamics).
3.5.10.A.3. Interpret topographic maps to identify and describe significant geologic history/structures in Pennsylvania.
3.5.10.A.4. Evaluate and interpret geologic history using geologic maps.
3.5.10.A.5. Explain several methods of dating earth materials and structures.
3.5.10.A.6. Correlate rock units with general geologic time periods in the history of the earth.
3.5.10.A.7. Describe and identify major types of rocks and minerals.
3.5.10.B. Explain sources and uses of earth resources.
3.5.10.B.1. Compare the locations of strategic minerals and earth resources in the world with their geologic history using maps and global information systems.
3.5.10.B.2. Demonstrate the effects of sedimentation and erosion before and after a conservation plan is implemented.
3.5.10.B.3. Evaluate the impact of geologic activities/hazards (e.g., earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides).
3.5.10.B.4. Evaluate land use (e.g., agricultural, recreational, residential, commercial) in Pennsylvania based upon soil characteristics.
3.5.10.C. Interpret meteorological data.
3.5.10.C.1. Analyze information from meteorological instruments and online sources to predict weather patterns.
3.5.10.C.2. Describe weather and climate patterns on global levels.
3.5.10.C.3. Evaluate specific adaptations plants and animals have made that enable them to survive in different climates.
3.5.10.D. Assess the value of water as a resource.
3.5.10.D.1. Compare specific sources of potable water (e.g., wells, public systems, rivers) used by people in Pennsylvania.
3.5.10.D.2. Identify the components of a municipal/agricultural water supply system and a wastewater treatment system.
3.5.10.D.3. Relate aquatic life to water conditions (e.g., turbidity, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen levels, pressure).
3.5.10.D.4. Compare commercially important aquatic species in or near Pennsylvania.
3.5.10.D.5. Identify economic resources found in marine areas.
3.5.10.D.6. Assess the natural and man-made factors that affect the availability of clean water (e.g., rock and mineral deposits, man-made pollution).
PA.3.6.10. Science and Technology: Technology Education: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.6.10.A. Apply biotechnologies that relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
3.6.10.A.1. Apply knowledge of plant and animal production processes in designing an improvement to existing processes.
3.6.10.A.2. Apply knowledge of biomedical technology applications in designing a solution to a simple medical problem (e.g., wheel chair design, artificial arteries).
3.6.10.A.3. Apply knowledge of how biomedical technology affects waste products in designing a solution that will result in reduced waste.
3.6.10.A.4. Apply ergonomic engineering factors when devising a solution to a specific problem.
3.6.10.A.5. Describe various methods of biochemical conversion.
3.6.10.A.6. Describe specific examples that reflect the impact that agricultural science has had on biotechnology.
3.6.10.B. Apply knowledge of information technologies of encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
3.6.10.B.1. Describe the proper use of graphic and electronic communication systems.
3.6.10.B.2. Apply a variety of advanced mechanical and electronic drafting methods to communicate a solution to a specific problem.
3.6.10.B.3. Apply and analyze advanced communication techniques to produce an image that effectively conveys a message (e.g., desktop publishing, audio and/or video production).
3.6.10.B.4. Illustrate an understanding of a computer network system by modeling, constructing or assembling its components.
3.6.10.C. Apply physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design to real world problems.
3.6.10.C.1. Describe and classify common construction by their characteristics and composition.
3.6.10.C.2. Compare and contrast specific construction systems that depend on each other in order to complete a project.
3.6.10.C.3. Evaluate material failure common to specific applications.
3.6.10.C.4. Demonstrate knowledge of various construction systems by building or interpreting models.
3.6.10.C.5. Select and apply the necessary resources to successfully conduct a manufacturing enterprise.
3.6.10.C.6. Apply concepts of design engineering and production engineering in the organization and application of a manufacturing activity.
3.6.10.C.7. Apply the concepts of manufacturing by redesigning an enterprise to improve productivity or reduce or eliminate waste and/or pollution.
3.6.10.C.8. Evaluate the interrelationship of various transportation systems in the community.
3.6.10.C.9. Analyze the impacts that transportation systems have on a community.
PA.3.7.10. Science and Technology: Technological Devices: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.7.10.A. Identify and safely use a variety of tools, basic machines, materials and techniques to solve problems and answer questions.
3.7.10.A.1. Select and safely apply appropriate tools, materials and processes necessary to solve complex problems.
3.7.10.A.2. Apply advanced tool and equipment manipulation techniques to solve problems.
3.7.10.B. Apply appropriate instruments and apparatus to examine a variety of objects and processes.
3.7.10.B.1. Describe and use appropriate instruments to gather and analyze data.
3.7.10.B.2. Compare and contrast different scientific measurement systems; select the best measurement system for a specific situation.
3.7.10.B.3. Explain the need to estimate measurements within error of various instruments.
3.7.10.B.4. Apply accurate measurement knowledge to solve everyday problems.
3.7.10.B.5. Describe and demonstrate the operation and use of advanced instrumentation in evaluating material and chemical properties (e.g., scanning electron microscope, nuclear magnetic resonance machines).
3.7.10.C. Apply basic computer operations and concepts.
3.7.10.C.1. Identify solutions to basic hardware and software problems.
3.7.10.C.2. Apply knowledge of advanced input devices.
3.7.10.C.3. Apply knowledge of hardware setup.
3.7.10.C.4. Describe the process for basic software installation and demonstrate it.
3.7.10.C.5. Analyze and solve basic operating systems problems.
3.7.10.C.6. Apply touch keyboarding skills and techniques at expectable speed and accuracy.
3.7.10.C.7. Demonstrate the ability to perform basic software installation.
3.7.10.D. Utilize computer software to solve specific problems.
3.7.10.D.1. Identify legal restrictions in the use of software and the output of data.
3.7.10.D.2. Apply advanced graphic manipulation and desktop publishing techniques.
3.7.10.D.3. Apply basic multimedia applications.
3.7.10.D.4. Apply advanced word processing, database and spreadsheet skills.
3.7.10.D.5. Describe and demonstrate how two or more software applications can be used to produce an output.
3.7.10.D.6. Select and apply software designed to meet specific needs.
3.7.10.E. Apply basic computer communications systems.
3.7.10.E.1. Identify and explain various types of on-line services.
3.7.10.E.2. Identify and explain the function of the parts of a basic network.
3.7.10.E.3. Describe and apply the components of a web page and their function.
3.7.10.E.4. Explain and demonstrate file transfer within and out side of a computer network.
3.7.10.E.5. Identify, describe and complete advanced on-line research.
PA.3.8.10. Science and Technology: Science, Technology and Human Endeavors: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
3.8.10.A. Analyze the relationship between societal demands and scientific and technological enterprises.
3.8.10.A.1. Identify past and current tradeoffs between increased production, environmental harm and social values (e.g., increased energy needs, power plants, automobiles).
3.8.10.A.2. Compare technologies that are applied and accepted differently in various cultures (e.g., factory farming, nuclear power).
3.8.10.A.3. Describe and evaluate social change as a result of technological developments.
3.8.10.A.4. Assess the social impacts of a specific international environmental problem by designing a solution that applies the appropriate technologies and resources.
3.8.10.B. Analyze how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
3.8.10.B.1. Identify several problems and opportunities that exist in your community, apply various problem-solving methods to design and evaluate possible solutions.
3.8.10.B.2. Analyze a recently invented item, describing the human need that prompted its invention and the current and potential social impacts of the specific invention.
3.8.10.B.3. Apply knowledge of oceanography, meteorology, geology and human anatomy to explain important considerations that need to be made for construction of homes, buildings and businesses in the United States.
3.8.10.B.4. Assess the impacts that agricultural science has had on meeting human needs and improving the quality of life.
3.8.10.C. Evaluate possibilities consequences and impacts of scientific and technological solutions.
3.8.10.C.1. Relate scientific and technological advancements in terms of cause and effect.
3.8.10.C.2. Describe and evaluate the impacts that financial considerations have had on specific scientific and technological applications.
3.8.10.C.3. Compare and contrast potential solutions to technological, social, economic and environmental problems.
3.8.10.C.4. Analyze the impacts on society of accepting or rejecting scientific and technological advances.
PA.4.1.10. Environment and Ecology: Watersheds and Wetlands: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.1.10.A. Describe changes that occur from a stream's origin to its final outflow.
4.1.10.A.1. Identify Pennsylvania's major watersheds and their related river systems.
4.1.10.A.2. Describe changes by tracing a specific river's origin back to its headwaters including its major tributaries.
4.1.10.B. Explain the relationship among landforms, vegetation and the amount and speed of water.
4.1.10.B.1. Analyze a stream's physical characteristics.
4.1.10.B.2. Describe how topography influences streams.
4.1.10.B.3. Explain the influence of mountains on precipitation.
4.1.10.B.4. Explain how vegetation affects storm water runoff.
4.1.10.B.5. Delineate the boundaries of a watershed.
4.1.10.B.6. Describe factors that affect the quality of groundwater.
4.1.10.B.7. Explain how the speed of water and vegetation cover relates to erosion.
4.1.10.C. Describe the physical characteristics of a stream and determine the types of organisms found in aquatic environments.
4.1.10.C.1. Describe and explain the physical factors that affect a stream and the organisms living there.
4.1.10.C.2. Identify terrestrial and aquatic organisms that live in a watershed.
4.1.10.C.3. Categorize aquatic organisms found in a watershed continuum from headwater to mouth (e.g., shredder, predator, decomposer).
4.1.10.C.4. Identify the types of organisms that would live in a stream based on the stream's physical characteristics.
4.1.10.C.5. Explain the habitat needs of specific aquatic organisms.
4.1.10.D. Describe the multiple functions of wetlands.
4.1.10.D.1. Describe wetlands in terms of their effects (e.g., habitat, flood, buffer zones, prevention areas, nurseries, food production areas).
4.1.10.D.2. Explain how a wetland influences water quality, wildlife and water retention.
4.1.10.D.3. Analyze wetlands through their indicators (e.g., soils, plants, hydrology).
4.1.10.E. Identify and describe natural and human events on watersheds and wetlands.
4.1.10.E.1. Describe how natural events affect a watershed (e.g., drought, floods).
4.1.10.E.2. Identify the effects of humans and human events on watersheds.
PA.4.2.10. Environment and Ecology: Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.2.10.A. Explain that renewable and nonrenewable resources supply energy and materials.
4.2.10.A.1. Identify alternative sources of energy.
4.2.10.A.2. Identify and compare fuels used in industrial and agricultural societies.
4.2.10.A.3. Compare and contrast the cycles of various natural resources.
4.2.10.A.4. Explain food and fiber as renewable resources.
4.2.10.B. Evaluate factors affecting availability of natural resources.
4.2.10.B.1. Describe natural occurrences that may affect the natural resources.
4.2.10.B.2. Analyze technologies that affect the use of our natural resources.
4.2.10.B.3. Evaluate the effect of consumer desires on various natural resources.
4.2.10.C. Analyze how man-made systems have impacted the management and distribution of natural resources.
4.2.10.C.1. Explain the complete cycle of a natural resource, from extraction to disposal, detailing its uses and effects on the environment.
4.2.10.C.2. Analyze energy uses and energy conservation in different regions.
4.2.10.C.3. Examine conservation practices in different countries.
4.2.10.C.4. Analyze the costs and benefits of different man-made systems and how they use renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
4.2.10.C.5. Analyze the impact of information systems on management and distribution of natural resources.
4.2.10.D. Explain different management alternatives involved in recycling and solid waste management.
4.2.10.D.1. Analyze the manufacturing process (before, during and after) with consideration for resource recovery.
4.2.10.D.2. Compare various methods dealing with solid waste (e.g., incineration, compost, land application).
4.2.10.D.3. Differentiate between pre/post-consumer and raw materials.
4.2.10.D.4. Illustrate how one natural resource can be managed through reduction, recycling, reuse or use.
PA.4.3.10. Environment and Ecology: Environmental Health: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.3.10.A. Describe environmental health issues.
4.3.10.A.1. Identify the effects on human health of air, water and soil pollution and the possible economic costs to society.
4.3.10.A.2. Describe how indoor pollution may affect human health (e.g., dust mites, fumes, cat dandruff).
4.3.10.A.3. Explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants.
4.3.10.A.4. Explain how common household cleaning products are manufactured and how to dispose of their by-products after use.
4.3.10.B. Explain how multiple variables determine the effects of pollution on environmental health, natural processes and human practices.
4.3.10.B.1. Explain how human practices affect the quality of the water and soil.
4.3.10.B.2. Identify evidence of natural events around the world and their effects on environmental health (e.g., Yellowstone National Park fires).
4.3.10.B.3. Identify local and state environmental regulations and their impact on environmental health.
4.3.10.B.4. Analyze data and explain how point source pollution can be detected and eliminated.
4.3.10.B.5. Identify and explain ways of detecting pollution by using state-of-the-art technologies.
4.3.10.C. Explain biological diversity as an indicator of a healthy environment.
4.3.10.C.1. Explain species diversity.
4.3.10.C.2. Analyze the effects of species extinction on the health of an ecosystem.
PA.4.4.10. Environment and Ecology: Agriculture and Society: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.4.10.A. Describe the importance of agriculture to society.
4.4.10.A.1. Identify the major cash crops of Pennsylvania.
4.4.10.A.2. Identify what percentage of the United States' population is involved in the food and fiber industry.
4.4.10.A.3. Compare and contrast the influence of agriculture on a nation's culture, standard of living and foreign trade.
4.4.10.A.4. Identify laws that affect conservation and management of food and fiber production in the local area and analyze their impact.
4.4.10.A.5. Compare a contemporary economic issue in agriculture to its historical origin.
4.4.10.B. Assess the influence of agricultural science on farming practices.
4.4.10.B.1. Compare the practices of no-till farming to traditional soil preparation (e.g., plow, disc).
4.4.10.B.2. Analyze and explain the various practices of nutrient management on the farm.
4.4.10.B.3. Analyze and explain how farm efficiencies have changed human nutrition.
4.4.10.C. Explain the functions of the components of the food and fiber system.
4.4.10.C.1. Compare and analyze growing conditions in the United States to determine which plants and animals are most suitable to each region.
4.4.10.C.2. Compare the management practices needed for a commodity (i.e., production, processing, research and development, marketing, distribution and regulations.
4.4.10.C.3. Identify a commodity, its origin and its steps of production.
4.4.10.C.4. Compare and analyze the cost of a commodity to its production cost.
4.4.10.C.5. Identify and describe how food safety issues have impacted production in agriculture.
4.4.10.D. Analyze the efforts of increased efficiency in agriculture through technology.
4.4.10.D.1. Compare various technological advancements and analyze each for its contribution toward labor and cost efficiency.
4.4.10.D.2. Compare the current market value of both natural and alternative energy sources involved in the production of food and fiber.
PA.4.5.10. Environment and Ecology: Integrated Pest Management: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.5.10.A. Identify similar classifications of pests that may or may not have similar effects on different regions.
4.5.10.A.1. Identify environmental effect(s) of pests on different regions of the world.
4.5.10.A.2. Identify introduced species that are classified as pests in their new environments.
4.5.10.B. Analyze health benefits and risks associated with integrated pest management.
4.5.10.B.1. Identify the health risks associated with chemicals used in common pesticides.
4.5.10.B.2. Assess various levels of control within different integrated pest management practices including increased immunity to pesticides, food safety, sterilization, nutrient management and weed control.
4.5.10.C. Determine the effects of integrated pest management practices on society over time.
4.5.10.C.1. Analyze the risks to the environment and society associated with alternative practices used in integrated pest management.
4.5.10.C.2. Analyze the benefits to the environment and society associated with alternative practices used in integrated pest management.
PA.4.6.10. Environment and Ecology: Ecosystems and their Interactions: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.6.10.A. Explain the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem and their interaction.
4.6.10.A.1. Identify the major biomes and explain their similarities and differences.
4.6.10.A.2. Compare and contrast the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in an ecosystem.
4.6.10.A.3. Analyze the effects of abiotic factors on specific ecosystems.
4.6.10.A.4. Describe how the availability of resources affects organisms in an ecosystem.
4.6.10.A.5. Explain energy flow in a food chain through an energy pyramid.
4.6.10.A.6. Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow in a food chain.
4.6.10.A.7. Explain the concept of carrying capacity in an ecosystem.
4.6.10.A.8. Explain trophic levels.
4.6.10.A.9. Identify a specific environmental impact and predict what change may take place to affect homeostasis.
4.6.10.A.10. Examine and explain how organisms modify their environments to sustain their needs.
4.6.10.A.11. Assess the effects of latitude and altitude on biomes.
4.6.10.A.12. Interpret possible causes of population fluctuations.
4.6.10.A.13. Explain how erosion and sedimentation have changed the quality of soil related habitats.
4.6.10.B. Explain how cycles affect the balance in an ecosystem.
4.6.10.B.1. Describe an element cycle and its role in an ecosystem.
4.6.10.B.2. Explain the consequences of interrupting natural cycles.
4.6.10.C. Analyze how ecosystems change over time.
4.6.10.C.1. Identify and explain the succession stages in an ecosystem.
4.6.10.C.2. Identify causes of succession.
4.6.10.C.3. Analyze consequences of interrupting natural cycles.
PA.4.7.10. Environment and Ecology: Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.7.10.A. Explain the significance of diversity in ecosystems.
4.7.10.A.1. Explain the role that specific organisms have in their ecosystem.
4.7.10.A.2. Identify a species and explain what effects its increase or decline might have on the ecosystem.
4.7.10.A.3. Identify a species and explain how its adaptations are related to its niche in the environment.
4.7.10.B. Explain how structure, function and behavior of plants and animals affect their ability to survive.
4.7.10.B.1. Describe an organism's adaptations for survival in its habitat.
4.7.10.B.2. Compare adaptations among species.
4.7.10.C. Identify and explain why adaptations can lead to specialization.
4.7.10.C.1. Explain factors that could lead to a species' increase or decrease.
4.7.10.C.2. Explain how management practices may influence the success of specific species.
4.7.10.C.3. Identify and explain criteria used by scientists for categorizing organisms as threatened, endangered or extinct.
PA.4.8.10. Environment and Ecology: Humans and the Environment: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.8.10.A. Analyze how society's needs relate to the sustainability of natural resources.
4.8.10.A.1. Explain why some societies have been unable to meet their natural resource needs.
4.8.10.A.2. Compare and contrast the use of natural resources and the environmental conditions in several countries.
4.8.10.A.3. Describe how uses of natural resources impact sustainability.
4.8.10.B. Analyze the relationship between the use of natural resources and sustaining our society.
4.8.10.B.1. Explain the role of natural resources in sustaining society.
4.8.10.B.2. Analyze the effects of a natural resource's availability on a community or region.
4.8.10.C. Analyze how human activities may cause changes in an ecosystem.
4.8.10.C.1. Analyze and evaluate changes in the environment that are the result of human activities.
4.8.10.C.2. Compare and contrast the environmental effects of different industrial strategies (e.g., energy generation, transportation, logging, mining, agriculture).
4.8.10.D. Explain how the concept of supply and demand affects the environment.
4.8.10.D.1. Identify natural resources for which societal demands have been increasing.
4.8.10.D.2. Identify specific resources for which human consumption has resulted in scarcity of supply (e.g., buffalo, lobsters).
4.8.10.D.3. Describe the relationship between population density and resource use and management.
PA.4.9.10. Environment and Ecology: Environmental Laws and Regulations: Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
4.9.10.A. Explain why environmental laws and regulations are developed and enacted.
4.9.10.A.1. Explain the positive and negative impacts associated with passing environmental laws and regulations.
4.9.10.A.2. Understand conflicting rights of property owners and environmental laws and regulations.
4.9.10.A.3. Analyze the roles that local, state and federal governments play in the development and enforcement of environmental laws.
4.9.10.A.4. Identify local and state environmental regulations and their impact on environmental health.
4.9.10.A.5. Explain the positive and negative impacts of the Endangered Species Act.