# Kentucky State Standards for Mathematics: Kindergarten

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

KY.PS. Program of Studies 2006

MA-P-NPO. Big Idea: Number Properties and Operations - Whole number sense and addition and subtraction are key concepts and skills developed in early childhood. Students build on their number sense and counting sense to develop multiplication and division. They move flexibly and fluently through basic number facts, operations and representations. Their understanding of the base-10 number system expands to include decimals. They examine various meanings and models of fractions. They explore data, perform measurements and examine patterns as part of the development process for number and operations, using other mathematics strands to enrich number. Elementary number encompasses computational fluency with whole numbers, relationships between decimals and fractions and techniques for reasonable estimations. (Academic Expectations 2.7, 2.8)

MA-P-NPO-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships between numbers and number systems are means of representing real-world quantities.

MA-P-NPO-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that meanings of and relationships among operations provide tools necessary to solve realistic problems encountered in everyday life.

MA-P-NPO-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that computing fluently and making reasonable estimates increases the ability to solve realistic problems encountered in everyday life.

MA-P-NPO-S-NS1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will read, write, count and model whole numbers 0-10,000, developing an understanding of place value for ones, tens, hundreds, thousands and ten thousands.

MA-P-NPO-S-NS2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, expanded form, symbols) to describe and compare whole numbers and fractions (e.g., halves, thirds, fourths) in mathematical and real-world problems.

MA-P-NPO-S-NS3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will order groups of objects according to quantity.

MA-P-NPO-S-NS4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will order, compare and understand the relative magnitude of numbers from 0-10,000, using the symbols <, >, =, including the use of physical and visual models for smaller numbers.

MA-P-NPO-S-NS5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will develop beginning fractional concepts (e.g., dividing an object into equal parts and naming the equal parts [e.g., halves, thirds, fourths]).

MA-P-NPO-S-NS6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will expand fraction concepts (e.g., whole to part and part to whole; one-half is larger than one-fourth).

MA-P-NPO-S-NS7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will be introduced to and use decimals to represent money.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will develop an understanding of the concepts of addition and subtraction using physical objects and concrete materials.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore and develop an understanding of the concepts of multiplication and division using physical models.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will develop part-whole relations using numbers (e.g., 3 + 2 = 5, 1 + 4 = 5).

MA-P-NPO-S-NO4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore and solve two-digit addition and subtraction problems through the use of manipulatives.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore and develop factor-factor-product (e.g., 2 x 3 = 6) using manipulatives. (e.g., hundreds charts, base-10 blocks, arrays).

MA-P-NPO-S-NO6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will multiply whole numbers through 10 x 10.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will relate division facts to multiplication facts (e.g., using factor-factor-product).

MA-P-NPO-S-NO8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will solve multi-digit addition and subtraction problems that contain numerals and symbols.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO9. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will add common fractions with like denominators using manipulatives.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO10. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will add and subtract decimals using money.

MA-P-NPO-S-NO11. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use mental math, pencil-and-paper methods, calculators and/or computers to explore mathematical concepts and to assist with computation in problem solving situations.

MA-P-NPO-S-PNO1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore, develop and use the concepts of multiples.

MA-P-NPO-S-PNO2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will skip-count forwards and backwards by 2s, 5s, 10s and 100s, using manipulatives, mental math and written and electronic means to communicate understanding.

MA-P-NPO-S-PNO3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore, develop and use the concepts of odd and even numbers.

MA-P-NPO-S-PNO4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore and use of properties of numbers for written and mental computation (e.g., 4 + 7 + 6 could be mentally regrouped as 4 + 6 + 7 using the commutative property of addition).

MA-P-NPO-S-E1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore appropriate estimation procedures for different situations.

MA-P-NPO-S-E2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply and describe appropriate strategies for estimating quantities of objects and computational results.

MA-P-M. Big Idea: Measurement - Students translate from measuring using nonstandard units to using standard units of measurement. They identify measurable attributes of objects, estimate and measure weight, length, perimeter, area, angles, temperature, time and money. They convert units within the same measurement system. (Academic Expectations 2.10, 2.11)

MA-P-M-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems and processes of measurement are powerful tools for making sense of the world around them.

MA-P-M-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that measurements are determined by using appropriate techniques, tools and formulas.

MA-P-M-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that for each situation, there is an appropriate degree of accuracy in measurement.

MA-P-M-S-MPA1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply standard units to measure length (inches and centimeters), weight (pounds), time (hours, half-hours, quarter-hours, five- and one-minute intervals), money (coins and bills) and temperature (Fahrenheit and Celsius).

MA-P-M-S-MPA2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use nonstandard units to measure and compare the length, weight, area or volume of familiar objects.

MA-P-M-S-MPA3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use standard units of measurement to identify, describe and compare measurable attributes of objects (e.g., length, weight, volume) and make estimates using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-P-M-S-MPA4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will choose and use appropriate tools for specific measurement tasks.

MA-P-M-S-MPA5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will sort/classify or compare and order objects by shape, size and color (e.g., attribute blocks).

MA-P-M-S-MPA6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will estimate weight, length, perimeter, area, angle and time using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-P-M-S-MPA7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore concepts of perimeter and area of rectangles using manipulatives.

MA-P-M-S-MPA8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify, compare and order amounts of money using coins and bills and use correct symbols for money.

MA-P-M-S-MPA9. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will combine coins and bills to make a given amount and make change up to a dollar.

MA-P-M-S-MPA10. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will relate time to daily activities, tell time to the hour, half-hour, quarter-hour, five minutes and one minute and determine elapsed time.

MA-P-M-S-SM1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine equivalent U.S. customary measurements.

MA-P-M-S-SM2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe, define, give examples of and use to solve real-world and/or mathematical problems both nonstandard and standard (U.S. Customary, metric) units of measurement to include length, time, money, temperature (Fahrenheit and Celsius) and weight.

MA-P-G. Big Idea: Geometry - Students explore and find basic geometric elements and terms, two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They find and use symmetry. They move two-dimensional figures in a plane and explore congruent and similar figures. (Academic Expectation 2.8, 2.9)

MA-P-G-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that characteristics and properties of two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects describe the world and are used to develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships and to evaluate the arguments of others.

MA-P-G-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that representational systems, including coordinate geometry, are means for specifying locations and describing spatial relationships and are organizers for making sense of the world around them.

MA-P-G-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that transformations and symmetry are used to analyze real-world situations (e.g., art, nature, construction and scientific exploration).

MA-P-G-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that visualization, spatial reasoning and geometric relationships model real-world situations.

MA-P-G-S-SR1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify, describe, model, draw, compare and classify two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects using elements, attributes and properties.

MA-P-G-S-SR2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore the relationships among two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects (e.g., using virtual manipulatives).

MA-P-G-S-SR3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify and describe congruent figures in real-world and/or mathematical situations.

MA-P-G-S-SR4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate and solve real-world problems using the elements, attributes and properties of basic two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects.

MA-P-G-S-SR5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify, draw and represent line segments and angles.

MA-P-G-S-SR6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine if simple shapes are congruent.

MA-P-G-S-CG1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will locate points and figures on a grid representing a positive coordinate system.

MA-P-G-S-TS1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine lines of symmetry in simple shapes and identify and describe symmetrical two-dimensional figures.

MA-P-G-S-TS2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will examine examples of line symmetry in real-world situations and apply one line of symmetry to construct simple geometric designs, using graphic, technological or concrete models/manipulatives to communicate understanding.

MA-P-G-S-TS3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore flips, slides and turns with physical models.

MA-P-G-S-TS4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify images from flips (reflections), slides (translations) and turns (rotations) in a plane.

MA-P-DAP. Big Idea: Data Analysis and Probability - Students pose questions, plan and collect data, organize and display data and interpret displays of data. They generate outcomes for simple probability activities, determine fairness of probability games and explore likely and unlikely events. (Academic Expectations 2.7, 2.8, 2.13)

MA-P-DAP-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that quantitative literacy is a necessary tool to be an intelligent consumer and citizen.

MA-P-DAP-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the collection, organization, interpretation and display of data can be used to answer questions.

MA-P-DAP-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the choice of data display can affect the visual message communicated.

MA-P-DAP-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that inferences and predictions from data are used to make critical and informed decisions.

MA-P-DAP-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that probability can be used to make decisions or predictions or to draw conclusions.

MA-P-DAP-S-DR1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will make a graph using concrete manipulatives and read data displayed on a concrete graph.

MA-P-DAP-S-DR2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will display, read and compare data on student-invented graphs.

MA-P-DAP-S-DR3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will read, display, compare and interpret student-collected data.

MA-P-DAP-S-DR4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will display, read and compare data on a pictograph and bar graph.

MA-P-DAP-S-DR5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will display data in line plots.

MA-P-DAP-S-DR6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze and make inferences from data displays (drawings, tables/charts, tally tables, pictographs, bar graphs, circle graphs, line plots, two-circle Venn diagrams).

MA-P-DAP-S-DR7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use technology to organize and display data collected from student investigations.

MA-P-DAP-S-ES1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will pose questions to generate data.

MA-P-DAP-S-ES2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use data from student investigations to make predictions or draw simple conclusion.

MA-P-DAP-S-ES3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use tools (including technology when appropriate) to organize and display student-collected data.

MA-P-DAP-S-P1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore chance through games and events.

MA-P-DAP-S-P2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will compare likely and unlikely outcomes.

MA-P-DAP-S-P3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore basic concepts of probability through simple experiments.

MA-P-AT. Big Idea: Algebraic Thinking - Students explore and examine patterns and develop rules to go with patterns. They generate input-output for functions and create tables to analyze functions. Students use number sentences with missing values. (Academic Expectations 2.8, 2.11, 2.12)

MA-P-AT-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that patterns, relations and functions are tools that help explain or predict real-world phenomena.

MA-P-AT-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that numerical patterns can be written as rules that generate the pattern.

MA-P-AT-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that algebra represents mathematical situations and structures for analysis and problem solving (e.g., finding the missing value in open sentences).

MA-P-AT-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that real-world situations can be represented using mathematical models to analyze quantitative relationships.

MA-P-AT-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that functions are used to analyze change in various contexts and model real-world phenomena.

MA-P-AT-S-PRF1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify and describe patterns in real life and in numerical and geometric situations.

MA-P-AT-S-PRF2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will reproduce and extend patterns using manipulatives.

MA-P-AT-S-PRF3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use pictures or words to create, reproduce, extend and explain patterns of shapes, objects, movements, sounds and numbers.

MA-P-AT-S-PRF4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will recognize and extend simple number patterns.

MA-P-AT-S-PRF5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore input-output machines (e.g., function machines) and solve simple function machine tasks.

MA-P-AT-S-PRF6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use calculators to explore how constant addition produces a pattern and can be expressed as a rule for a pattern.

MA-P-AT-S-VEO1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore unknowns and open sentences to express relationships.

MA-P-AT-S-VEO2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will create stories about mathematical sentences with missing values.

MA-P-AT-S-EI1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will solve simple equations (e.g., 1 + 1 = [ ]; [ ] - 2 = 7).

MA-P-AT-S-EI2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will solve simple inequalities (e.g., [ ] < 6).

MA-P-AT-S-EI3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will solve for unknowns in simple open sentences.

MA-P-AT-S-EI4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will read and create story problems to represent mathematical sentences with missing values.

MA-P-AT-S-EI5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use manipulatives, numbers and/or symbols to model real-world situations with simple number sentences.

KY.AE. Academic Expectation

AE.1. Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

1.1. Students use reference tools such as dictionaries, almanacs, encyclopedias, and computer reference programs and research tools such as interviews and surveys to find the information they need to meet specific demands, explore interests, or solve specific problems.

1.2. Students make sense of the variety of materials they read.

1.3. Students make sense of the various things they observe.

1.4. Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.

1.5-1.9. Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

1.10. Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.

1.11. Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

1.12. Students speak using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

1.13. Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.

1.14. Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with music.

1.15. Students make sense of and communicate ideas with movement.

1.16. Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.

AE.2. Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

2.7. Mathematics: Students understand number concepts and use numbers appropriately and accurately.

2.8. Mathematics: Students understand various mathematical procedures and use them appropriately and accurately.

2.9. Mathematics: Students understand space and dimensionality concepts and use them appropriately and accurately.

2.10. Mathematics: Students understand measurement concepts and use measurements appropriately and accurately.

2.11. Mathematics: Students understand mathematical change concepts and use them appropriately and accurately.

2.12. Mathematics: Students understand mathematical structure concepts including the properties and logic of various mathematical systems.

2.13. Mathematics: Students understand and appropriately use statistics and probability.

KY.CC. Core Content for Assessment v.4.1

MA-EP-1. Number Properties and Operations: Whole number sense, addition and subtraction are key concepts and skills developed in early childhood. Students build on their number sense and counting sense to develop multiplication and division. They move flexibly and fluently through basic number facts, operations and representations. Their understanding of the base-10 number system expands to include decimals. They examine various meanings and models of fractions. They explore data, perform measurements and examine patterns as part of the development process for number and operations, using other mathematics strands to enrich number. Computational fluency with whole numbers, relationships among decimals and fractions and techniques for reasonable estimations represent elementary number.

MA-EP-1.1. Number Sense

MA-EP-1.1.1. Students will apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, expanded form, symbols) to describe whole numbers (0 to 9,999); apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, symbols) to describe fractions (halves, thirds, fourths); apply these numbers to represent real-world problems and explain how the base 10 number system relates to place value. DOK 2

MA-EP-1.1.2. Students will read, write and rename whole numbers (0 to 9,999) and apply to real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-EP-1.1.3. Students will compare (<, >, =) and order whole numbers to whole numbers, decimals to decimals (as money only) and fractions to fractions (limited to pictorial representations). DOK 1

MA-EP-1.2. Estimation

MA-EP-1.2.1. Students will apply and describe appropriate strategies for estimating quantities of objects and computational results (limited to addition and subtraction). DOK 2

MA-EP-1.3. Number Operations

MA-EP-1.3.1. Students will analyze real-world problems to identify the appropriate mathematical operations, and will apply operations to solve real-world problems with the following constraints: add and subtract whole numbers with three digits or less; multiply whole numbers of 10 or less; add and subtract fractions with like denominators less than or equal to four and add and subtract decimals related to money. DOK 2

MA-EP-1.3.2. Students will skip-count forward and backward by 2s, 5s, 10s and 100s.

MA-EP-1.3.3. Students will divide two digit numbers by single digit divisors (with or without remainders) in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-EP-1.5. Ratios and Proportional Reasoning (not assessed at this level) - Properties of Numbers and Operations

MA-EP-1.5.1. Students will identify and provide examples of odd numbers, even numbers and multiples of a number and will apply these numbers to solve real-world problems. DOK 2

MA-EP-1.5.2. Students will use the commutative properties of addition and multiplication, the identity properties of addition and multiplication and the zero property of multiplication in written and mental computation.

MA-EP-2. Measurement: Students progress from measuring using nonstandard units to using standard units of measurement. They identify measurable attributes of objects, estimate and measure weight, length, perimeter, area, angles, temperature, time and money. They convert units within the same measurement system.

MA-EP-2.1. Measuring Physical Attributes

MA-EP-2.1.1. Students will apply standard units to measure length (to the nearest half-inch or the nearest centimeter) and to determine: weight (nearest pound); time (nearest quarter hour); money (identify coins and bills by value) and temperature (Fahrenheit). DOK 1

MA-EP-2.1.2. Students will use standard units to measure temperature in Fahrenheit and Celsius to the nearest degree.

MA-EP-2.1.3. Students will choose and use appropriate tools (e.g., thermometer, scales, balances, clock, ruler) for specific measurement tasks.

MA-EP-2.1.4. Students will use nonstandard and standard units of measurement to identify measurable attributes of an object (length - in, cm; weight - oz, lb) and make an estimate using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-EP-2.1.5. Students will use units of measurement to describe and compare attributes of objects to include length (in, cm), width, height, money (cost), temperature (F) and weight (oz, lb) and sort objects and compare attributes by shape, size and color.

MA-EP-2.1.6. Students will estimate weight, length, perimeter, area, angle measures and time using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-EP-2.2. Systems of Measurement

MA-EP-2.2.1. Students will describe, define, give examples of and use to solve real-world and mathematical problems nonstandard and standard (U.S. Customary, metric) units of measurement to include length (in., cm.), time, money, temperature (Fahrenheit) and weight (oz., lb.).

MA-EP-2.2.2. Students will determine elapsed time by half hours.

MA-EP-2.2.3. Students will convert units within the same measurement system including money (dollars, cents), time (minutes, hours, days, weeks, months), weight (ounce, pound) and length (inch, foot).

MA-EP-3. Geometry: Students explore and find basic geometric elements and terms, two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They find and use symmetry. They move two-dimensional figures in a plane and explore congruent and similar figures.

MA-EP-3.1. Shapes and Relationships

MA-EP-3.1.1. Students will describe and provide examples of basic geometric elements and terms (sides, edges, faces, bases, vertices, angles) and will apply these elements to solve real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 2

MA-EP-3.1.2. Students will describe and provide examples of basic two-dimensional shapes (circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, trapezoids, rhombuses, hexagons) and will apply these shapes to solve real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 2

MA-EP-3.1.3. Students will describe and provide examples of basic three-dimensional objects (spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, cubes) and will apply the attributes to solve real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 1

MA-EP-3.1.5. Students will identify and describe congruent figures in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-EP-3.2. Transformations of Shapes

MA-EP-3.2.1. Students will describe and provide examples of line symmetry in real-world and mathematical problems or will apply one line of symmetry to construct a simple geometric design. DOK 2

MA-EP-3.3. Coordinate Geometry

MA-EP-3.3.1. Students will locate points on a grid representing a positive coordinate system.

MA-EP-4. Data Analysis and Probability: Students pose questions, plan and collect data, organize and display data and interpret displays of data. They generate outcomes for simple probability activities, determine fairness of probability games and explore likely and unlikely events.

MA-EP-4.1. Data Representations

MA-EP-4.1.1. Students will analyze and make inferences from data displays (drawings, tables/charts, tally tables, pictographs, bar graphs, circle graphs with two or three sectors, line plots, two-circle Venn diagrams). DOK 3

MA-EP-4.1.2. Students will collect data.

MA-EP-4.1.3. Students will organize and display data.

MA-EP-4.2. Characteristics of Data Sets

MA-EP-4.2.1. Students will determine the mode (of a set of data with no more than one mode) and the range of a set of data.

MA-EP-4.3. Experiments and Samples

MA-EP-4.3.1. Students will pose questions that can be answered by collecting data.

MA-EP-4.4. Probability

MA-EP-4.4.3. Students will describe and give examples of the probability of an unlikely event (near zero) and a likely event (near one).

MA-EP-5. Algebraic Thinking: Students explore and examine patterns and develop rules to go with patterns. They generate input-output for functions and create tables to analyze functions. They use ordered pairs and plot points in the first quadrant of the Cartesian plane. Students use number sentences with missing values.

MA-EP-5.1. Patterns, Relations and Functions

MA-EP-5.1.1. Students will extend simple patterns (e.g., 2,4,6,8, ...). DOK 2

MA-EP-5.1.2. Students will describe functions (input-output) through pictures and words. DOK 2

MA-EP-5.1.3. Students will determine the value of an output given a function rule and an input value.

MA-EP-5.3. Variables, Expressions and Operations (not assessed at this level) - Equations and Inequalities

MA-EP-5.3.1. Students will model real-world and mathematical problems with simple number sentences (equations and inequalities) with a missing value (e.g., 2 + ? = 7, __< 6) and apply simple number sentences to solve mathematical and real-world problems. DOK 2