# Kentucky State Standards for Mathematics: Grade 4

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

KY.PS. Program of Studies 2006

MA-4-NPO. Big Idea: Number Properties and Operations - Whole number sense and addition and subtraction are key concepts and skills developed in early childhood. Students build on their number sense and counting sense to develop multiplication and division. They move flexibly and fluently through basic number facts, operations and representations. Their understanding of the base-10 number system expands to include decimals. They examine various meanings and models of fractions. They explore data, perform measurements and examine patterns as part of the development process for number and operations, using other mathematics strands to enrich number. Elementary number encompasses computational fluency with whole numbers, relationships between decimals and fractions and techniques for reasonable estimations. (Academic Expectations 2.7, 2.8)

MA-4-NPO-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships between numbers and number systems are means of representing real-world quantities.

MA-4-NPO-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that meanings of and relationships among operations provide tools necessary to solve realistic problems encountered in everyday life.

MA-4-NPO-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that computing fluently and making reasonable estimates increases the ability to solve realistic problems encountered in everyday life.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, expanded form, symbols) to represent whole numbers (0 to 1,000,000).

MA-4-NPO-S-NS2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will read, write and model whole numbers from 0 to 1,000,000, developing place value for hundred thousands and millions.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will order and compare numbers to 1,000,000 and understand their relative magnitude.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate and apply multiple representations of commonly used and equivalent fractions through twelfths (e.g., 1/2=3/6) and decimals through thousandths with manipulatives (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, expanded form, symbols).

MA-4-NPO-S-NS5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore the use of simple ratios to describe problem situations.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore the relationship between fractions, decimals and percents.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply whole numbers, commonly used fractions and decimals to represent real-world problems.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explain how the base 10 number system relates to place value.

MA-4-NPO-S-NS9. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will develop equivalent relationships between commonly used fractions, decimals and whole numbers (e.g., 1/2 = 0.5, 4/2 = 2, 2=2.0).

MA-4-NPO-S-NS10. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will graph a whole number, commonly used fraction or decimal on a number line.

MA-4-NPO-S-PNO1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine factors/multiples of a whole number.

MA-4-NPO-S-PNO2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will skip-count forwards and backwards by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, 10s, 20s, 25s, 50s, 100s, 1,000s and 10,000s and use manipulatives, mental math and written and electronic means to communicate understanding.

MA-4-NPO-S-PNO3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify and provide examples of odd and even numbers.

MA-4-NPO-S-PNO4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore and use properties of numbers for written and mental computations (e.g., use commutative property of addition to rearrange addition such as change 12+4+8 to 12+8+4 to simplify the addition).

MA-4-NPO-S-NO1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will develop and apply computational procedures to add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers.

MA-4-NPO-S-NO2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use manipulatives and/or diagrams to add and subtract fractions with a common denominator.

MA-4-NPO-S-NO3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will add and subtract decimals through thousandths.

MA-4-NPO-S-E1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore appropriate estimation procedures for different situations.

MA-4-NPO-S-E2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply and explain appropriate strategies for estimating quantities of objects and computational results.

MA-4-M. Big Idea: Measurement - Students translate from measuring using nonstandard units to using standard units of measurement. They identify measurable attributes of objects, estimate and measure weight, length, perimeter, area, angles, temperature, time and money. They convert units within the same measurement system. (Academic Expectations 2.10, 2.11)

MA-4-M-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that there are two major measurement systems (U.S. Customary and metric) and either may be used to solve problems.

MA-4-M-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems and processes of measurement are powerful tools for making sense of the world around them.

MA-4-M-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that appropriate techniques, tools and formulas are used to determine measurements.

MA-4-M-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that there is an appropriate degree of accuracy in measurement for each situation.

MA-4-M-S-MPA1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore and compare non-standard and standard units for measuring angles.

MA-4-M-S-MPA2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will relate time to days, weeks, months and years.

MA-4-M-S-MPA3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will add and subtract time to solve problems.

MA-4-M-S-MPA4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will read and record temperatures to the nearest degree.

MA-4-M-S-MPA5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will measure and determine area and perimeter of a rectangle.

MA-4-M-S-MPA6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will measure and determine perimeter of regular/irregular shapes.

MA-4-M-S-MPA7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will choose and use appropriate tools (e.g., thermometer, scale, balance, clock, meter stick) for specific measurement tasks.

MA-4-M-S-MPA8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use measurements to describe and compare attributes of objects, including length, width, height, money (cost), temperature and weight, and sort and compare objects using attributes.

MA-4-M-S-MPA9. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will estimate weight, length, perimeter, area, angle measure and time using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-4-M-S-SM1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will convert units (e.g., linear, weight, money, time) within a measurement system (e.g., 2 feet = 24 inches).

MA-4-M-S-SM2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe, define, give examples of and use to solve real-world and/or mathematical problems both nonstandard and standard (U.S. Customary, metric) units of measurement to include length, weight, time, money and temperature (Fahrenheit and Celsius).

MA-4-G. Big Idea: Geometry - Students explore and find basic geometric elements and terms, two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They find and use symmetry. They move two-dimensional figures in a plane and explore congruent and similar figures. (Academic Expectation 2.8, 2.9)

MA-4-G-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that characteristics and properties of two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects describe the world and are used to develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships and to evaluate the arguments of others.

MA-4-G-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that representational systems, including coordinate geometry, are means for specifying locations and describing spatial relationships and are organizers for making sense of the world around them.

MA-4-G-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that transformations and symmetry are used to analyze real-world situations (e.g., art, nature, construction and scientific exploration).

MA-4-G-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand shape and area are conserved during mathematical transformations (flips, slides and turns).

MA-4-G-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that visualization, spatial reasoning and geometric relationships model real-world situations.

MA-4-G-S-SR1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze structures of geometric figures (e.g., points, rays, lines, segments, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, intersecting lines, angles).

MA-4-G-S-SR2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate geometric relationships (e.g., similarity, congruence) through manipulatives and drawings.

MA-4-G-S-SR3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze attributes of two-dimensional figures (e.g., circle, triangles, squares, rectangles, trapezoids, rhombuses, pentagons, hexagons, octagons) and apply these attributes to solve real-world problems.

MA-4-G-S-SR4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze attributes of basic three-dimensional objects (spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, cubes, triangular and rectangular prisms) and will apply these attributes to solve real-world problems.

MA-4-G-S-TS1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and provide examples of line symmetry in real-world situations; apply one or two lines of symmetry to construct a simple geometric design.

MA-4-G-S-TS2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify basic two-dimensional figures in different orientations using 90 degree rotations (turns) around a point of rotation, reflections (flips) and translations (slides) within a plane

MA-4-G-S-CG1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify and graph ordered pairs on a positive coordinate system.

MA-4-G-S-CG2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will locate points on a grid.

MA-4-DAP. Big Idea: Data Analysis and Probability - Students pose questions, plan and collect data, organize and display data and interpret displays of data. They generate outcomes for simple probability activities, determine fairness of probability games and explore likely and unlikely events. (Academic Expectations 2.7, 2.8, 2.13)

MA-4-DAP-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that quantitative literacy is a necessary tool to be an intelligent consumer and citizen.

MA-4-DAP-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the collection, organization, interpretation and display of data can be used to answer questions.

MA-4-DAP-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the choice of data display can affect the visual message communicated.

MA-4-DAP-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that inferences and predictions from data are used to make critical and informed decisions.

MA-4-DAP-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that probability can be used to make decisions or predictions or to draw conclusions.

MA-4-DAP-S-DR1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore line graphs to show change over time.

MA-4-DAP-S-DR2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will display, read and compare data on student-generated graphs.

MA-4-DAP-S-DR3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will pose questions and choose an appropriate method to collect, organize and display student-collected data to answer the questions.

MA-4-DAP-S-DR4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze and make inferences from data displays (e.g., drawings, tables/charts, tally tables, pictographs, bar graphs, circle graphs, line plots, Venn diagrams).

MA-4-DAP-S-DR5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will construct data displays (e.g., pictographs, bar graphs, line plots, Venn diagrams, tables).

MA-4-DAP-S-CD1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will draw conclusions based on data.

MA-4-DAP-S-CD2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will develop the meaning and interpretation of the median, mode and range of a set of data.

MA-4-DAP-S-CD3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine the median, mode and range of a set of data.

MA-4-DAP-S-CD4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will compare two sets of data.

MA-4-DAP-S-ES1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will pose questions and collect, organize, interpret and display data to answer them.

MA-4-DAP-S-P1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use a variety of appropriate manipulatives, graphics or symbols to determine the fairness of games and make predictions from the outcomes of simple probability experiments.

MA-4-DAP-S-P2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine the likelihood of an event, expressed as a fraction.

MA-4-DAP-S-P3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and give examples of the probability of an unlikely event and a likely event.

MA-4-DAP-S-P4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use counting techniques and/or tables to explore probability experiments.

MA-4-DAP-S-P5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will determine all possible outcomes of an activity with up to 12 possible outcomes.

MA-4-AT. Big Idea: Algebraic Thinking - Students explore and examine patterns and develop rules to go with patterns. They generate input-output for functions and create tables to analyze functions. Students use number sentences with missing values. (Academic Expectations 2.8, 2.11, 2.12)

MA-4-AT-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that patterns, relations and functions are tools that help explain or predict real-world phenomena.

MA-4-AT-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that numerical patterns can be written as rules that generate the pattern.

MA-4-AT-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that algebra represents mathematical situations and structures for analysis and problem solving.

MA-4-AT-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that real-world situations can be represented using mathematical models to analyze quantitative relationships.

MA-4-AT-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that functions are used to analyze change in various contexts and model real-world phenomena.

MA-4-AT-U-6. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that functions can be written in words, as a symbolic sentence or in a table.

MA-4-AT-S-VEO1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore unknowns and open sentences to express relationships.

MA-4-AT-S-VEO2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will write stories about mathematical sentences with missing values.

MA-4-AT-S-EI1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will solve simple equations (e.g., 4 = 7 - [ ], 6 + [ ] = 10).

MA-4-AT-S-EI2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will solve simple inequalities (e.g., N + 5 > 14).

MA-4-AT-S-EI3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply number sentences to solve real-world problems.

MA-4-AT-S-EI4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will read or create and solve story problems using mathematical sentences with missing values.

MA-4-AT-S-EI5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will model real-world situations with simple number sentences using manipulatives, numbers and/or symbols.

MA-4-AT-S-PRF1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will represent, describe, analyze and/or formulate rules for number relationships or functions through a variety of methods (e.g., the use of variables, ordered pairs, lists in tables, plots on graphs and patterns)

MA-4-AT-S-PRF2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will compare, contrast and/or extend patterns of numbers and shapes and sounds from real-world or mathematical situations.

KY.AE. Academic Expectation

AE.1. Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

1.1. Students use reference tools such as dictionaries, almanacs, encyclopedias, and computer reference programs and research tools such as interviews and surveys to find the information they need to meet specific demands, explore interests, or solve specific problems.

1.2. Students make sense of the variety of materials they read.

1.3. Students make sense of the various things they observe.

1.4. Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.

1.5-1.9. Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

1.10. Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.

1.11. Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

1.12. Students speak using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

1.13. Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.

1.14. Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with music.

1.15. Students make sense of and communicate ideas with movement.

1.16. Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.

AE.2. Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

2.7. Mathematics: Students understand number concepts and use numbers appropriately and accurately.

2.8. Mathematics: Students understand various mathematical procedures and use them appropriately and accurately.

2.9. Mathematics: Students understand space and dimensionality concepts and use them appropriately and accurately.

2.10. Mathematics: Students understand measurement concepts and use measurements appropriately and accurately.

2.11. Mathematics: Students understand mathematical change concepts and use them appropriately and accurately.

2.12. Mathematics: Students understand mathematical structure concepts including the properties and logic of various mathematical systems.

2.13. Mathematics: Students understand and appropriately use statistics and probability.

KY.CC. Core Content for Assessment v.4.1

MA-04-1. Number Properties and Operations: Whole number sense, addition and subtraction are key concepts and skills developed in early childhood. Students build on their number sense and counting sense to develop multiplication and division. They move flexibly and fluently through basic number facts, operations and representations. Their understanding of the base-10 number system expands to include decimals. They examine various meanings and models of fractions. They explore data, perform measurements and examine patterns as part of the development process for number and operations, using other mathematics strands to enrich number. Computational fluency with whole numbers, relationships among decimals and fractions and techniques for reasonable estimations represent elementary number.

MA-04-1.1. Number Sense

MA-04-1.1.1. Students will apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, expanded form, symbols) to represent whole numbers (0 to 99,999); apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, symbols) to describe commonly used fractions through tenths and decimals through hundredths; apply these numbers to represent real-world problems and explain how the base 10 number system relates to place value. DOK 2

MA-04-1.1.2. Students will read, write and rename whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and apply to real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-04-1.1.3. Students will compare (<, >, =) and order whole numbers and compare commonly used fractions and decimals and explain the relationships (equivalence, order) between and among them. DOK 2

MA-04-1.2. Estimation

MA-04-1.2.1. Students will apply and describe appropriate strategies for estimating quantities of objects and computational results. DOK 2

MA-04-1.3. Number Operations

MA-04-1.3.1. Students will analyze real-world problems to identify the appropriate representations using mathematical operations, and will apply operations to solve real-world problems with the following constraints: add and subtract whole numbers with four digits or less; multiply whole numbers with two digits or less; divide whole numbers with three digits or less by single-digit divisors (with or without remainders); add and subtract fractions with like denominators less than or equal to 10 and add and subtract decimals through hundredths. DOK 2

MA-04-1.3.2. Students will skip-count forward and backward by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, 10s, 20s, 25s, 50s, 100s, 1,000s and 10,000s.

MA-04-1.5. Ratios and Proportional Reasoning (not assessed at this level) - Properties of Numbers and Operations

MA-04-1.5.1. Students will identify and determine odd numbers, even numbers, multiples of a number and factors of a number and will apply these numbers to solve real-world problems. DOK 2

MA-04-1.5.2. Students will use the commutative properties of addition and multiplication, the associative properties of addition and multiplication, the identity properties of addition and multiplication and the zero property of multiplication in written and mental computation.

MA-04-2. Measurement: Students progress from measuring using nonstandard units to using standard units of measurement. They identify measurable attributes of objects, estimate and measure weight, length, perimeter, area, angles, temperature, time and money. They convert units within the same measurement system.

MA-04-2.1. Measuring Physical Attributes

MA-04-2.1.1. Students will apply standard units to measure length (to the nearest quarter-inch or the nearest centimeter) and to determine: weight (ounce, pound; gram, kilogram); perimeter; area (figures that can be divided into rectangular shapes); time (nearest five minutes) and temperature (Fahrenheit and Celsius). DOK 2

MA-04-2.1.2. Students will choose and use appropriate tools (e.g., thermometer, scales, balances, clock, meter stick, yardstick, ruler) for specific measurement tasks.

MA-04-2.1.3. Students will use nonstandard and standard units of measurement to identify measurable attributes of an object (length and width) using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-04-2.1.4. Students will use measurements to describe and compare attributes of objects to include length (in, ft, yd, mile; cm, m, km), width, height, money (cost), temperature and weight (oz, lb, ton; g, kg) and sort objects and compare attributes.

MA-04-2.1.5. Students will use nonstandard and standard units to measure angles (as compared to 90 degrees).

MA-04-2.1.6. Students will estimate weight, length, perimeter, area, angle measures and time using appropriate units of measurement.

MA-04-2.2. Systems of Measurement

MA-04-2.2.1. Students will describe, define, give examples of and use to solve real-world and mathematical problems nonstandard and standard (U.S. Customary, metric) units of measurement (e.g., weight - oz., lbs., tons, g, kg; length - in., ft., yd., mile, cm, m, km; area in square units) and money.

MA-04-2.2.2. Students will determine elapsed time to the nearest quarter hour.

MA-04-2.2.3. Students will convert units within the same measurement system, including money, time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years), weight (ounces, pounds) and length (inches, feet, yards). DOK 1

MA-04-3. Geometry: Students explore and find basic geometric elements and terms, two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They find and use symmetry. They move two-dimensional figures in a plane and explore congruent and similar figures.

MA-04-3.1. Shapes and Relationships

MA-04-3.1.1. Students will describe and provide examples of basic geometric elements and terms [points, segments, lines (perpendicular, parallel, intersecting), rays, angles [acute, right, obtuse], sides, edges, faces, bases, vertices], and will apply these elements to solve real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 2

MA-04-3.1.2. Students will describe and provide examples of basic two-dimensional shapes [circles, triangles (right, equilateral), squares, rectangles, trapezoids, rhombuses, pentagons, hexagons, octagons], and will apply these shapes to solve real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 2

MA-04-3.1.3. Students will describe and provide examples of basic three-dimensional objects (spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, cubes, triangular and rectangular prisms), and will apply the attributes to solve real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 2

MA-04-3.1.4. Students will explore two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects (nets).

MA-04-3.1.5. Students will identify and describe congruent and similar figures in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-04-3.2. Transformations of Shapes

MA-04-3.2.1. Students will describe and provide examples of line symmetry in real-world and mathematical problems or will apply one or two lines of symmetry to construct a simple geometric design. DOK 2

MA-04-3.2.2. Students will identify basic two-dimensional shapes in different orientations using 90 degree rotations (turns) around a point of rotation, reflections (flips), and translations (slides) within a plane.

MA-04-3.3. Coordinate Geometry

MA-04-3.3.1. Students will identify and graph ordered pairs on a positive coordinate system scaled by ones or locate points on a grid. DOK 2

MA-04-4. Data Analysis and Probability: Students pose questions, plan and collect data, organize and display data and interpret displays of data. They generate outcomes for simple probability activities, determine fairness of probability games and explore likely and unlikely events.

MA-04-4.1. Data Representations

MA-04-4.1.1. Students will analyze and make inferences from data displays (drawings, tables/charts, tally tables, pictographs, bar graphs, circle graphs, line plots, Venn diagrams). DOK 3

MA-04-4.1.2. Students will collect data.

MA-04-4.1.3. Students will construct data displays (pictographs, bar graphs, line plots, Venn diagrams, tables). DOK 2

MA-04-4.2. Characteristics of Data Sets

MA-04-4.2.1. Students will determine the median, mode (for a data set with no more than one mode) and range of a set of data.

MA-04-4.3. Experiments and Samples

MA-04-4.3.1. Students will pose questions that can be answered by collecting data.

MA-04-4.4. Probability

MA-04-4.4.1. Students will determine all possible outcomes of an activity/event with up to six possible outcomes. DOK 2

MA-04-4.4.2. Students will determine the likelihood of an event and the probability of an event (expressed as a fraction). DOK 1

MA-04-4.4.3. Students will describe and give examples of the probability of an unlikely event (near zero) and a likely event (near one).

MA-04-5. Algebraic Thinking: Students explore and examine patterns and develop rules to go with patterns. They generate input-output for functions and create tables to analyze functions. They use ordered pairs and plot points in the first quadrant of the Cartesian plane. Students use number sentences with missing values.

MA-04-5.1. Patterns, Relations and Functions

MA-04-5.1.1. Students will extend patterns (e.g., 108, 208, 308, 408, ...) from real- world and mathematical problems; compare simple patterns (numbers, pictures, words); and describe rules for simple number patterns (e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, ...; 5, 10, 15, 20, ...; 30, 27, 24, 21, ...). DOK 3

MA-04-5.1.2. Students will describe functions (input-output) through pictures, tables and words and will analyze functions, from a table, based on real-world and mathematical problems. DOK 2

MA-04-5.1.3. Students will determine the value of an output given a function rule and an input value. DOK 2

MA-04-5.3. Variables, Expressions, and Operations (not assessed at this level) - Equations and Inequalities

MA-04-5.3.1. Students will model real-world and mathematical problems with simple number sentences (equations and inequalities) with a variable or a missing value (e.g., 4 = 7 - __, 1/2 + N + 5 > 14, + N = 1) and apply simple number sentences to solve mathematical and real-world problems. DOK 2