New York State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 2
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NY.1. History of the United States and New York: Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York.
1.1. The study of New York State and United States history requires an analysis of the development of American culture, its diversity and multicultural context, and the ways people are unified by many values, practices, and traditions.
1.1.1. Students know the roots of American culture, its development from many different traditions, and the ways many people from a variety of groups and backgrounds played a role in creating it.
1.1.2. Students understand the basic ideals of American democracy as explained in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution and other important documents.
1.1.3. Students explain those values, practices, and traditions that unite all Americans.
1.2. Important ideas, social and cultural values, beliefs, and traditions from New York State and United States history illustrate the connections and interactions of people and events across time and from a variety of perspectives.
1.2.1. Students gather and organize information about the traditions transmitted by various groups living in their neighborhood and community.
1.2.2. Students recognize how traditions and practices were passed from one generation to the next.
1.2.3. Students distinguish between near and distant past and interpret simple timelines.
1.3. Study about the major social, political, economic, cultural, and religious developments in New York State and United States history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups.
1.3.1. Students gather and organize information about the important accomplishments of individuals and groups, including Native American Indians, living in their neighborhoods and communities.
1.3.2. Students classify information by type of activity: social, political, economic, technological, scientific, cultural, or religious.
1.3.3. Students identify individuals who have helped to strengthen democracy in the United States and throughout the world.
1.4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments.
1.4.1. Students consider different interpretations of key events and/or issues in history and understand the differences in these accounts.
1.4.2. Students explore different experiences, beliefs, motives, and traditions of people living in their neighborhoods, communities, and State.
1.4.3. Students view historic events through the eyes of those who were there, as shown in their art, writings, music, and artifacts.
NY.2. World History: Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives.
2.1. The study of world history requires an understanding of world cultures and civilizations, including an analysis of important ideas, social and cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. This study also examines the human condition and the connections and interactions of people across time and space and the ways different people view the same event or issue from a variety of perspectives.
2.1.1. Students read historical narratives, myths, legends, biographies, and autobiographies to learn about how historical figures lived, their motivations, hopes, fears, strengths, and weaknesses.
2.1.2. Students explore narrative accounts of important events from world history to learn about different accounts of the past to begin to understand how interpretations and perspectives develop.
2.1.3. Students study about different world cultures and civilizations focusing on their accomplishments, contributions, values, beliefs, and traditions.
2.2. Establishing timeframes, exploring different periodizations, examining themes across time and within cultures, and focusing on important turning points in world history help organize the study of world cultures and civilizations.
2.2.1. Students distinguish between past, present, and future time periods.
2.2.2. Students develop timelines that display important events and eras from world history.
2.2.3. Students measure and understand the meaning of calendar time in terms of years, decades, centuries, and millennia, using BC and AD as reference points.
2.2.4. Students compare important events and accomplishments from different time periods in world history.
2.3. Study of the major social, political, cultural, and religious developments in world history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups.
2.3.1. Students understand the roles and contributions of individuals and groups to social, political, economic, cultural, scientific, technological, and religious practices and activities.
2.3.2. Students gather and present information about important developments from world history.
2.3.3. Students understand how the terms social, political, economic, and cultural can be used to describe human activities or practices.
2.4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize about why interpretations change over time, explain the importance of historical evidence, and understand the concepts of change and continuity over time.
2.4.1. Students consider different interpretations of key events and developments in world history and understand the differences in these accounts.
2.4.2. Students explore the lifestyles, beliefs, traditions, rules and laws, and social/cultural needs and wants of people during different periods in history and in different parts of the world.
2.4.3. Students view historic events through the eyes of those who were there, as shown in their art, writings, music, and artifacts.
NY.3. Geography: Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which we live - local, national, and global - including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth's surface.
3.1. Geography can be divided into six essential elements which can be used to analyze important historic, geographic, economic, and environmental questions and issues. These six elements include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical settings (including natural resources), human systems, environment and society, and the use of geography. (Adapted from The National Geography Standards, 1994: Geography for Life).
3.1.1. Students study about how people live, work, and utilize natural resources.
3.1.2. Students draw maps and diagrams that serve as representations of places, physical features, and objects.
3.1.3. Students locate places within the local community, State, and nation; locate the Earth's continents in relation to each other and to principal parallels and meridians. (Adapted from National Geography Standards, 1994).
3.1.4. Students identify and compare the physical, human, and cultural characteristics of different regions and people (Adapted from National Geography Standards, 1994).
3.1.5. Students investigate how people depend on and modify the physical environment.
3.2. Geography requires the development and application of the skills of asking and answering geographic questions; analyzing theories of geography; and acquiring, organizing, and analyzing geographic information. (Adapted from: The National Geography Standards, 1994: Geography for Life).
3.2.1. Students ask geographic questions about where places are located; why they are located where they are; what is important about their locations; and how their locations are related to the location of other people and places (Adapted from National Geography Standards, 1994).
3.2.2. Students gather and organize geographic information from a variety of sources and display in a number of ways
3.2.3. Students analyze geographic information by making relationships, interpreting trends and relationships, and analyzing geographic data. (Adapted from National Geography Standards, 1994).
NY.4. Economics: Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision-making units function in the United States and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through market and nonmarket mechanisms.
4.1. The study of economics requires an understanding of major economic concepts and systems, the principles of economic decision making, and the interdependence of economies and economic systems throughout the world.
4.1.1. Students know some ways individuals and groups attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing scarce resources.
4.1.2. Students explain how people's wants exceed their limited resources and that this condition defines scarcity.
4.1.3. Students know that scarcity requires individuals to make choices and that these choices involve costs.
4.1.4. Students study about how the availability and distribution of resources is important to a nation's economic growth.
4.1.5. Students understand how societies organize their economies to answer three fundamental economic questions: What goods and services shall be produced and in what quantities? How shall goods and services be produced? For whom shall goods and services be produced?
4.1.6. Students investigate how production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services are economic decisions with which all societies and nations must deal.
4.2. Economics requires the development and application of the skills needed to make informed and well-reasoned economic decisions in daily and national life.
4.2.1. Students locate economic information, using card catalogues, computer databases, indices, and library guides.
4.2.2. Students collect economic information from textbooks, standard references, newspapers, periodicals, and other primary and secondary sources.
4.2.3. Students make hypotheses about economic issues and problems, testing, refining, and eliminating hypotheses and developing new ones when necessary.
4.2.4. Students present economic information by developing charts, tables, diagrams, and simple graphs.
NY.5. Civics, Citizenship, and Government: Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the United States and other nations; the United States Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy; and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation.
5.1. The study of civics, citizenship, and government involves learning about political systems; the purposes of government and civic life; and the differing assumptions held by people across time and place regarding power, authority, governance, and law. (Adapted from The National Standards for Civics and Government, 1994).
5.1.1. Students know the meaning of key terms and concepts related to government, including democracy, power, citizenship, nation-state, and justice.
5.1.2. Students explain the probable consequences of the absence of government and rules.
5.1.3. Students describe the basic purposes of government and the importance of civic life.
5.1.4. Students understand that social and political systems are based upon people's beliefs.
5.1.5. Students discuss how and why the world is divided into nations and what kinds of governments other nations have.
5.2. The state and federal governments established by the Constitutions of the United States and the State of New York embody basic civic values (such as justice, honesty, self-discipline, due process, equality, majority rule with respect for minority rights, and respect for self, others, and property), principles, and practices and establish a system of shared and limited government. (Adapted from The National Standards for Civics and Government, 1994).
5.2.1. Students explain how the Constitutions of New York State and the United States and the Bill of Rights are the basis for democratic values in the United States.
5.2.2. Students understand the basic civil values that are the foundation of American constitutional democracy.
5.2.3. Students know what the United States Constitution is and why it is important. (Adapted from The National Standards for Civics and Government, 1994).
5.2.4. Students understand that the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York are written plans for organizing the functions of government.
Students understand the structure of New York State and local governments, including executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
Suggested Titles for New York Social Studies State Standard 5.2.5.
5.2.6. Students identify their legislative and executive representatives at the local, state, and national governments. (Adapted from The National Standards for Civics and Government, 1994).
5.3. Central to civics and citizenship is an understanding of the roles of the citizen within American constitutional democracy and the scope of a citizen's rights and responsibilities.
5.3.1. Students understand that citizenship includes an awareness of the holidays, celebrations, and symbols of our nation.
5.3.2. Students examine what it means to be a good citizen in the classroom, school, home, and community.
5.3.3. Students identify and describe the rules and responsibilities students have at home, in the classroom, and at school.
5.3.4. Students examine the basic principles of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitutions of the United States and New York State.
5.3.5. Students understand that effective, informed citizenship is a duty of each citizen, demonstrated by jury service, voting, and community service.
5.3.6. Students identify basic rights that students have and those that they will acquire as they age.
5.4. The study of civics and citizenship requires the ability to probe ideas and assumptions, ask and answer analytical questions, take a skeptical attitude toward questionable arguments, evaluate evidence, formulate rational conclusions, and develop and refine participatory skills.
5.4.1. Students show a willingness to consider other points of view before drawing conclusions or making judgments.
5.4.2. Students participate in activities that focus on a classroom, school, or community issue or problem.
5.4.3. Students suggest alternative solutions or courses of action to hypothetical or historic problems.
5.4.4. Students evaluate the consequences for each alternative solution or course of action.
5.4.5. Students prioritize the solutions based on established criteria.
5.4.6. Students propose an action plan to address the issue of how to solve the problem.