West Virginia State Standards for Language Arts: Grade 12

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WV.RLA.S.12.1. Reading: Students will apply reading skills and strategies to inform, to perform a task and to read for literacy experience by identifying and using grade appropriate essential reading components (phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, and written application) and selecting a wide variety of literature and diverse media to develop independence as readers.

RLA.O.12.1.1. Research, evaluate and critique the historical, cultural, political and biographical influences to determine the impact on literary works.

RLA.O.12.1.2. Analyze, evaluate, and critique literary styles according to genre:

RLA.O.12.1.2.a. Author's use

RLA.O.12.1.2.b. Elements

RLA.O.12.1.2.c. Expectations

RLA.O.12.1.3. Extend the amount of independent reading with emphasis on American, British and World Literature, and informational texts.

RLA.O.12.1.4. Incorporate appropriate reading strategies necessary for a successful literary experience, to gain information and perform an assigned task:

RLA.O.12.1.4.a. Rereading

RLA.O.12.1.4.b. Paraphrasing

RLA.O.12.1.4.c. Questioning

RLA.O.12.1.4.d. Analyzing

RLA.O.12.1.4.e. Chunking

RLA.O.12.1.4.f. Activating prior knowledge

RLA.O.12.1.5. Evaluate and justify the characteristics of author's intended audience, purpose, style, voice and technique through the use of reasoning and evidence and literary/character analysis.

RLA.O.12.1.6. Formulate, in a critique, supportable conclusions, summarize events and ideas, construct inferences and generalizations, and interpret character traits from explicit and implicit ideas.

RLA.O.12.1.7. Demonstrate knowledge of and evaluate literary devices:

RLA.O.12.1.7.a. Archetypes

RLA.O.12.1.7.b. Allegory

RLA.O.12.1.7.c. Antithesis

RLA.O.12.1.7.d. Pace

RLA.O.12.1.7.e. Satire

RLA.O.12.1.7.f. Cadence

RLA.O.12.1.7.g. Scansion

RLA.O.12.1.7.h. Flashback

RLA.O.12.1.7.i. Foreshadowing

RLA.O.12.1.7.j. Freytag's pyramid (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, catastrophe)

RLA.O.12.1.8. Evaluate and critique a variety of texts according to content, structure, purpose, organization of text, and tone.

RLA.O.12.1.9. Assess the importance and effectiveness of organizational patterns (e.g., problem-solution, cause-and-effect), textual features, graphical representations (e.g., tables, timelines, captions, maps, photographs) and ideas in informational and literary texts for intent, purpose and style.

RLA.O.12.1.10. Use knowledge of the history, cultural diversity, politics, and effects of language to comprehend and elaborate on the meaning of texts to expand vocabulary, and to draw connections to self and the real world.

RLA.O.12.1.11. Research literary criticism and evaluate its applicability to the genre being studied.

RLA.O.12.1.12. Analyze and evaluate persuasive language and techniques(e.g., advertisements, junk mail, web sites, news stories) for intent, purpose, audience, type (inductive or deductive) and effectiveness.

WV.RLA.S.12.2. Writing: Students will apply writing skills and strategies to communicate effectively for different purposes by using the writing process, applying grammatical and mechanical properties in writing and selecting and evaluating information for research purposes.

RLA.O.12.2.1. Compose using the five-step writing process (pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing, publishing), critique and evaluate narrative, informative, descriptive, persuasive and functional writings that include a letter of job application, a scholarship application/essay, and personal letters.

RLA.O.12.2.2. Generate a clearly worded and effectively placed thesis statement to develop a document (e.g., composition, essay, literary critique, research paper) that has a clear, logical progression of ideas in the introduction, body, and conclusion.

RLA.O.12.2.3. Identify, evaluate, and analyze information (e.g., primary and secondary sources, print and electronic media, personal interview) and recognize the concepts of intellectual property and plagiarism in all media (e.g., media copyright laws, private/public domain).

RLA.O.12.2.4. Refine the research question through pre-writing strategies by considering whether the thesis claim is personally relevant, interesting and meaningful, is relevant and meaningful to the audience, is aligned with purposes and goals, is logical and can be supported within the limits of the assignment and available resources.

RLA.O.12.2.5. Use, plan and incorporate varied note taking skills to organize and synthesize information from print and electronic primary and secondary sources (e.g., Internet, reference books, electronic databases for periodicals and newspapers) into an outline (introduction, thesis/hypothesis, main points, supporting details/examples, conclusion) to develop a composition or research project.

RLA.O.12.2.6. Plan, develop, and write a focused research project that has a clear thesis/hypothesis and logical progression of ideas supported by relevant details with an accompanying multimedia presentation and/or Web page using an accepted format (MLA, APA, Chicago, ASA).

RLA.O.12.2.7. Strategically incorporate source material in a variety of ways, demonstrating a sophisticated understanding of the ethics of writing:

RLA.O.12.2.7.a. Directly quoting

RLA.O.12.2.7.b. Paraphrasing

RLA.O.12.2.7.c. Summarizing

RLA.O.12.2.7.d. Using ellipses

RLA.O.12.2.8. Evaluate the effectiveness of and apply various forms of transition in a composition:

RLA.O.12.2.8.a. Sentence links

RLA.O.12.2.8.b. Repetition of key words or phrases

RLA.O.12.2.8.c. Restating of main/key ideas

RLA.O.12.2.8.d. Inferred transitions

RLA.O.12.2.9. Revise, edit and strategically employ a variety of sentence structures to improve variety and create more precise and concise language:

RLA.O.12.2.9.a. Compound-complex

RLA.O.12.2.9.b. Coordination/subordination

RLA.O.12.2.9.c. Parallel structures

RLA.O.12.2.9.d. Appositives

RLA.O.12.2.9.e. Rhetorical questions

RLA.O.12.2.9.f. Word/usage/choice

RLA.O.12.2.9.g. Passive/active voice

RLA.O.12.2.10. Demonstrate use of precise vocabulary, figurative language and literary devices to establish credibility, authority, and authorial voice to suggest an attitude toward subject matter, create mood, and carefully appeal to the audience:

RLA.O.12.2.10.a. Imagery

RLA.O.12.2.10.b. Rhetorical question

RLA.O.12.2.10.c. Connotation/denotation

RLA.O.12.2.10.d. Irony (situational, dramatic, verbal)

RLA.O.12.2.10.e. Setting (geographical, historical, political)

RLA.O.12.2.10.f. Symbolism

RLA.O.12.2.10.g. Extended metaphor

RLA.O.12.2.11. Use proofreading and editing strategies to correct errors in and improve organization, content, usage and mechanics. In the editing process, integrate print and electronic tools:

RLA.O.12.2.11.a. Dictionary

RLA.O.12.2.11.b. Thesaurus

RLA.O.12.2.11.c. Spell check

RLA.O.12.2.11.d. Grammar check

RLA.O.12.2.11.e. Thesaurus

RLA.O.12.2.11.f. Use peer editing and collaboration techniques to correct errors.

RLA.O.12.2.12. Use sophisticated rhetorical appeals and establish a credible authorial voice:

RLA.O.12.2.12.a. Consider knowledge and interest of audience

RLA.O.12.2.12.b. Establish credibility

RLA.O.12.2.12.c. Use an effective organizational pattern

RLA.O.12.2.12.d. Locate and interpret parallel structure, antithesis, and narrative pace

RLA.O.12.2.13. Compose an analysis of a literary selection with precise literary terminology (e.g. symbolism, imagery) to establish credibility and authority, to support interpretation of the text, and to appeal to the audience's interests.

WV.RLA.S.12.3. Listening, Speaking and Media Literacy: Students will apply listening, speaking and media literacy skills and strategies to communicate with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

RLA.O.12.3.1. Present using the transactional process of communication to include the components of speaker, listener, message, channel, feedback, and noise.

RLA.O.12.3.2. Plan, organize, adapt and deliver a grammatically correct presentation using a variety of media (e.g., live performance, video, PowerPoint, Web pages).

RLA.O.12.3.3. Adapt and use verbal and nonverbal strategies to listen for diverse purposes

RLA.O.12.3.3.a. Comprehension

RLA.O.12.3.3.b. Evaluation

RLA.O.12.3.3.c. Expression of empathy

RLA.O.12.3.3.d. Persuasion

RLA.O.12.3.3.e. Mediation

RLA.O.12.3.3.f. Collaboration

RLA.O.12.3.3.g. Facilitation

RLA.O.12.3.4. Critique and create examples of the wide range of purposes embedded in media communications.

RLA.O.12.3.5. Plan, compose, produce, evaluate, and revise an age appropriate product from various forms of media communication that demonstrates an understanding of format, purpose, audience, and choice of medium.

RLA.O.12.3.6. Properly use private and public information.

WV.RLA.S.JN.1. Journalism - Journalistic Background: Students will recognize elements of the communications process as it applies to interpersonal and group communication.

RLA.O.JN.1.1. Evaluate the role of journalism and its impact on society, including parallels between journalistic history and the country's political and social history.

RLA.O.JN.1.2. Analyze the changes in mass communication caused by the widespread use of technology.

RLA.O.JN.1.3. Read, critique, and analyze key press legal issues in professional and scholastic publications (e.g., censorship, prior restraint, libel, slander, privacy).

RLA.O.JN.1.4. Know and apply the rights, responsibilities, and ethics of journalists as defined in the Journalists' Code of Ethics and other publication policies.

RLA.O.JN.1.5. Expand vocabulary to include specialized journalism terms (e.g., captions, masthead, column inches, storyboard, framing).

RLA.O.JN.1.6. Identify and evaluate parts of stories (e.g., lead, body, conclusion, quote).

RLA.O.JN.1.7. Identify and integrate contemporary principles of layout and design in a newspaper, yearbook, magazine, broadcast story board and/or advertisement.

RLA.O.JN.1.8. Classify the elements of photo composition (dominance, texture, angle of view, contrast, rule of thirds, leading lines, framing devices), and explain the storytelling ability of a photograph.

RLA.O.JN.1.9. Compile, synthesize, produce and disseminate information using technology.

WV.RLA.S.JN.2. Journalism - Oral Communication: Students will use speaking and listening skills to accurately retrieve and evaluate information.

RLA.O.JN.2.1. Use appropriate listening and speaking skills (e.g., make eye contact, speak clearly, use phone etiquette).

RLA.O.JN.2.2. Prepare and conduct interviews following correct procedures (e.g., identify self and publication, state purpose, ask open-ended questions).

RLA.O.JN.2.3. Listen for bias and/or authority to probe and evaluate the reliability of sources, identify and interpret a source's message and intent, and accurately record direct and indirect quotations.

RLA.O.JN.2.4. Legally and ethically gather information from a variety of sources, (e.g., interviews, polls, surveys, electronic media, questionnaires) using one source to check another.

WV.RLA.S.JN.3. Journalism - Written Communication: Students will organize information in a vivid, focused, accurate and coherent manner using journalistic style rules and news judgment.

RLA.O.JN.3.1. Model appropriate journalistic writing that is focused and coherent (e.g., inverted pyramid for a news story, hour glass model, various audio and video scripting formats) to address specific writing purposes (e.g., news, editorial, feature, sports, column, advertising) and multiple audiences.

RLA.O.JN.3.2. Demonstrate news judgment by analyzing the elements of news as they relate to stories (e.g., timeliness, proximity, human interest, balance, prominence, conflict).

RLA.O.JN.3.3. Select words that are vivid, precise and economical, use a variety of transitional devices, vary syntax and sentence structure.

RLA.O.JN.3.4. Organize information to include the 5W's and an ''H'' (who, what, when, where, why and how) as they apply to a story, write various types of leads (e.g., narrative, direct quotation, question, summary) and creative and accurate headlines and captions.

RLA.O.JN.3.5. Integrate accurately written facts, quotations, attributions, paraphrases and interpretations into copy while respecting intellectual property rights:

RLA.O.JN.3.5.a. Copyrights

RLA.O.JN.3.5.b. Plagiarism

RLA.O.JN.3.6. Use persuasive language and techniques appropriately:

RLA.O.JN.3.6.a. Distinguish fact from opinion for editorials, news stories and advertising

RLA.O.JN.3.6.b. Recognize a source's authority, special interest, propaganda and bias

RLA.O.JN.3.7. Use editing strategies and journalistic style rules to correct grammatical, spelling and style errors (e.g., punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure), use word processing programs to prepare and edit text, and apply specialized jargon appropriately (e.g., sports, technology).

WV.RLA.S.JN.4. Journalism - Business: Students will perform journalistic business responsibly and collaboratively.

RLA.O.JN.4.1. Work collaboratively and cooperatively (e.g., teamwork, problem solving, brainstorming) to perform assigned duties such as meeting deadlines, completing assignments, organizing materials and checking sources, responsibly and professionally, to define leadership and management roles and respect the authority of the people in those roles:

RLA.O.JN.4.1.a. Editors

RLA.O.JN.4.1.b. Business managers

RLA.O.JN.4.1.c. Production managers

RLA.O.JN.4.1.d. News directors

RLA.O.JN.4.2. Examine the business and advertising aspects of journalism.

RLA.O.JN.4.3. Analyze effective advertising and conduct market research.

RLA.O.JN.4.4. Utilize effective circulation and sound financial record-keeping methods.

RLA.O.JN.4.5. Evaluate career opportunities in journalism and the required training/education for those careers.

WV.RLA.S.JN.5. Journalism - Newspaper: Students will plan and publish a school newspaper using all applicable objectives from Journalism Standards One through Four, in addition to the following specific objectives for newspaper production.

RLA.O.JN.5.1. Collaborate as a staff to determine publication content, policy, size, design, budget and circulation, to understand and perform duties of assigned staff positions, to establish and cover beats, to assign stories, photographs and advertisements, and to set and meet deadlines.

RLA.O.JN.5.2. Design page layouts using desktop software for page design.

RLA.O.JN.5.3. Prepare and edit camera-ready material for submission to a printer (e.g., paste-up, electronic desk submission).

RLA.O.JN.5.4. Sell advertising and/or subscriptions (e.g., dress and act professionally, develop a sales action plan) and create effective advertisements.

RLA.O.JN.5.5. Apply effective circulation and sound financial record-keeping methods:

RLA.O.JN.5.5.a. Subscriptions

RLA.O.JN.5.5.b. Advertising

RLA.O.JN.5.5.c. Supplies

RLA.O.JN.5.6. Evaluate finished publication through feedback from staff and audience after distribution to an audience.

WV.RLA.S.JN.6. Journalism - Yearbook: Students will plan and publish a school yearbook using all applicable objectives from Journalism Standards One through Four, in addition to the following specific objectives for yearbook production.

RLA.O.JN.6.1. Collaborate as a staff to determine publication content, policy, size, design, budget and circulation, understand and perform duties of assigned staff positions, and design page layouts.

RLA.O.JN.6.2. Prepare and edit camera-ready material for submission to a printer (e.g., paste-up, electronic desk submission), and correct page proofs from printer for re-submission.

RLA.O.JN.6.3. Sell advertising and/or subscriptions (e.g., dress and act professionally, develop a sales action plan), create effective advertisements, and apply effective circulation and sound financial record-keeping methods:

RLA.O.JN.6.3.a. Subscriptions

RLA.O.JN.6.3.b. Advertising

RLA.O.JN.6.3.c. Supplies

RLA.O.JN.6.4. Evaluate finished publication through feedback from staff and audience after distribution.

WV.RLA.S.JN.7. Journalism - Broadcasting: Students will plan and publish broadcasts using all applicable objectives from Journalism Standards One through Four, in addition to the following specific objectives for broadcasting.

RLA.O.JN.7.1. Organize and participate in pre-production meetings to plan content, production schedules, staff positions, etc.

RLA.O.JN.7.2. Perform duties of various staff positions (e.g., director, anchor, technical director, floor manager), in both leadership and non leadership roles.

RLA.O.JN.7.3. Follow various script and log formats to produce projects.

RLA.O.JN.7.4. Using available technology to create desired products or programs that demonstrate various audio and video techniques (e.g., dubbing, angles, shots, focus, movement, framing).

RLA.O.JN.7.5. Develop and apply skills related to the role of talent in a production:

RLA.O.JN.7.5.a. Camera and microphone consciousness

RLA.O.JN.7.5.b. Script use

RLA.O.JN.7.5.c. Dress

RLA.O.JN.7.5.d. Make-up

RLA.O.JN.7.5.e. Speaking skills

WV.RLA.S.JN.8. Journalism - Photo Journalism: Students will report events and ideas through photography using all applicable objectives from Journalism Standards One through Four, in addition to the following specific objectives for photojournalism.

RLA.O.JN.8.1. Integrate available equipment (e.g., digital camera, 35 mm camera, darkroom equipment), focal lenses (e.g., telephoto, wide angle, normal, zoom), and software (PhotoShop, HiJaak, Illustrator, InDesign, etc.) to create a product.

RLA.O.JN.8.2. Correctly use terminology associated with 35 mm photography (e.g., aperture, F-stop, depth of field, shutter speed, film speed).

RLA.O.JN.8.3. Shoot pictures as assigned, select photographs for their storytelling value and visual quality, and gather and write information to complete the storytelling effect of pictures.

RLA.O.JN.8.4. Process and print black and white film and process and use contact sheets to analyze shots:

RLA.O.JN.8.4.a. Composition

RLA.O.JN.8.4.b. Negative damage

RLA.O.JN.8.4.c. Cropping

RLA.O.JN.8.4.d. Density

WV.RLA.S.JN.9. Journalism - Desktop Publishing: Students will use technology to publish information in a wide variety of formats using all applicable objectives from Journalism Standards One through Four, in addition to the following specific objectives for desktop publishing.

RLA.O.JN.9.1. Use desktop publishing terminology correctly.

RLA.O.JN.9.2. Use available technology to work with images (e.g., digital cameras, scanners, publication software) and use software tools to create a publication:

RLA.O.JN.9.2.a. Insert and resize art and copy

RLA.O.JN.9.2.b. Moving objects

RLA.O.JN.9.2.c. Aligning and grouping images

RLA.O.JN.9.2.d. Layering objects

RLA.O.JN.9.2.e. Rotating objects

RLA.O.JN.9.3. Create a variety of publications (e.g., pamphlets, magazines, advertisements, web pages, business cards, memo forms, newsletters) complying with copyright and patent laws and licensing agreements.

WV.RLA.S.JN.10. Journalism - Public Relations: Students will develop and maintain positive working relationships among people within the school and between the school and community using all applicable objectives from Journalism Standards One through Four, in addition to the following specific objectives for public relations.

RLA.O.JN.10.1. Plan promotions, write press releases for the school, and distribute them to local print and broadcast media to promote the school.

RLA.O.JN.10.2. Design, write, produce, and disseminate the school's newsletter, web page, and archives.

RLA.O.JN.10.3. Serve as a liaison for the school and the community (e.g., internal communications, brochures, calendars, publicity).

WV.RLA.S.SP.1. Speech - The Communication Process: Students will recognize elements of the communications process as it applies to interpersonal and group communication.

RLA.O.SP.1.1. Explain the importance of speech communication in everyday life.

RLA.O.SP.1.2. Explain and give examples of the speech communication process including the following terms source, encode, message, channel, decode, receiver and feedback.

RLA.O.SP.1.3. Identify forms of formal and informal communication.

RLA.O.SP.1.4. Compare and contrast verbal and non-verbal communication.

RLA.O.SP.1.5. Identify the four characteristics of vocalization: rate, volume, pitch and quality.

RLA.O.SP.1.6. Compare and contrast hearing and listening.

RLA.O.SP.1.7. Give examples of the barriers to effective listening and plan methods to overcome them.

RLA.O.SP.1.8. Demonstrate strategic listening skills for comprehension by making predictions, constructing meaning beyond text, and asking questions.

RLA.O.SP.1.9. Demonstrate critical listening skills by separating fact from opinion, and by identifying propaganda, distortion, and faulty reasoning.

RLA.O.SP.1.10. Evaluate the effects of cultural diversity on communication.

RLA.O.SP.1.11. Recognize situations where the use of colloquialisms, dialects and slang are appropriate and inappropriate.

RLA.O.SP.1.12. Identify and use rules of speech etiquette.

RLA.O.SP.1.13. Discuss and assess the characteristics of effective team leaders and responsible group members.

WV.RLA.S.SP.2. Speech - Research: Students will research topics to develop focused and coherent speeches.

RLA.O.SP.2.1. Use various resources (.e.g., print media, Internet, etc.) to identify and research the main ideas about a topic.

RLA.O.SP.2.2. Utilize interviewing, note-taking, and summarizing skills to gather and process information.

RLA.O.SP.2.3. Use and evaluate the credibility of on-line information and other technological tools as resources following ethical and legal guidelines.

WV.RLA.S.SP.3. Speech - Organization and Delivery: Students will recognize elements of the communications process as it applies to interpersonal and group communication.

RLA.O.SP.3.1. Participate in a variety of formal and informal speaking experiences:

RLA.O.SP.3.1.a. Impromptu

RLA.O.SP.3.1.b. Extemporaneous

RLA.O.SP.3.1.c. Manuscript

RLA.O.SP.3.1.d. Introductions

RLA.O.SP.3.1.e. Business calls

RLA.O.SP.3.1.f. Group problem solving

RLA.O.SP.3.1.g. Conflict

RLA.O.SP.3.1.h. Mediation

RLA.O.SP.3.2. Compare and contrast the purposes for speaking:

RLA.O.SP.3.2.a. Inform

RLA.O.SP.3.2.b. Persuade

RLA.O.SP.3.2.c. Entertain

RLA.O.SP.3.3. Analyze the criteria for the selection of a topic, select an appropriate organizational pattern with a thesis statement and interesting introduction and conclusion, develop a clear, logical progression of ideas using main points, supporting details and a variety of transitional devices.

RLA.O.SP.3.4. Recognize and explain the differences between written and spoken language.

RLA.O.SP.3.5. Use verbal skills and model standard American English effectively (e.g., diction, articulation, pronunciation, vocal control).

RLA.O.SP.3.6. Use non-verbal skills effectively (e.g., eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture, body movement, dress).

RLA.O.SP.3.7. Utilize appropriate technology to record presentations for self-assessment, to prepare and edit text (e.g., Power Point, word processing, Excel, Paint, PhotoShop) to create visual aids, etc.

RLA.O.SP.3.8. Demonstrate the vocalization process using the following terms: generators, resonators and articulators of sound.

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