# Virginia State Standards for Science: Grade 11

VA.CH.1. Chemistry: The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated, produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include a) designated laboratory techniques; b) safe use of chemicals and equipment; c) proper response to emergency situations; d) manipulation of multiple variables with repeated trials; e) accurate recording, organizing, and analysis of data through repeated trials; f) mathematical and procedural error analysis; g) mathematical manipulations (SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, dimensional analysis); h) the use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data and communicating results; and i) construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint (the nature of science).

CH.1.1. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that measurements of quantity include length, volume, mass, temperature, time, and pressure to the correct number of significant digits.

CH.1.2. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that techniques for experimentation involve the identification and the proper use of chemicals, the description of equipment, and the recommended statewide framework for high school laboratory safety.

CH.1.3. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that measurements are useful in gathering data about chemicals and how they behave.

CH.1.4. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that repeated trials during experimentation ensure verifiable data.

CH.1.5. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that data tables are used to record and organize measurements.

CH.1.6. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that graphs are used to summarize the relationship between the independent and dependent variable.

CH.1.7. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that measurements must be expressed in SI units.

CH.1.8. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that scientific notation is used to write very small and very large numbers.

CH.1.9. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that algebraic equations represent relationships between dependent and independent variables.

CH.1.10. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that graphed data give a picture of a relationship.

CH.1.11. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that ratios and proportions are used in calculations.

CH.1.12. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that significant digits of a measurement are the number of known digits together with one estimated digit.

CH.1.13. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the last digit of any valid measurement must be estimated and is therefore uncertain.

CH.1.14. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that dimensional analysis is a way of translating a measurement from one unit to another unit.

CH.1.15. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that graphing calculators can be used to manage the mathematics of chemistry.

CH.1.16. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that mathematical procedures are used to validate data.

CH.1.17. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that constant reevaluation in the light of new data is essential to keeping scientific knowledge current. In this fashion, all forms of scientific knowledge remain flexible and may be revised as new data and new ways of looking at existing data become available.

CH.1.18. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to make the following measurements, using the specified equipment: volume (graduated cylinder, pipette, volumetric flask, buret); mass: electronic or dial-a-gram; temperature: thermometer and/or temperature probe; pressure: barometer or pressure probe.

CH.1.19. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to identify, locate, and know how to use laboratory safety equipment, including aprons, goggles, gloves, fire extinguishers, fire blanket, safety shower, eye wash, broken glass container, and fume hood.

CH.1.20. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to demonstrate the following basic lab techniques: filtering, decanting, using chromatography, and lighting a gas burner.

CH.1.21. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to identify the following basic lab equipment: beaker, flask, graduated cylinder, test tube, test tube rack, test tube holder, ring stand, wire gauze, clay triangle, crucible with lid, evaporation dish, watch glass, wash bottle, and dropping pipette.

CH.1.22. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to understand Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) warnings, including handling chemicals, lethal dose (LD), hazards, disposal, and chemical spill cleanup.

CH.1.23. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to demonstrate safe laboratory practices, procedures, and techniques.

CH.1.24. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to design and perform experiments to test predictions.

CH.1.25. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to identify variables.

CH.1.26. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to predict outcome(s) when a variable is changed.

CH.1.27. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to record data, using the significant digits of the measuring equipment.

CH.1.28. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to demonstrate precision (reproducibility) in measurement.

CH.1.29. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to recognize accuracy in terms of closeness to the true value of a measurement.

CH.1.30. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to discover and eliminate procedural errors.

CH.1.31. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to know most frequently used SI prefixes and their values (milli-, centi-, deci-, kilo-).

CH.1.32. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to demonstrate the use of scientific notation, using the correct number of significant digits with powers of ten notation for the decimal place.

CH.1.33. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to correctly utilize the following when graphing data: dependent variable (vertical axis); independent variable (horizontal axis); scale and units of a graph; regression line (best fit curve).

CH.1.34. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to calculate mole ratios, percent composition, conversions, and relative atomic mass.

CH.1.35. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to use the rules for performing operations with significant digits.

CH.1.36. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to utilize dimensional analysis.

CH.1.37. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to use graphing calculators correctly.

CH.1.38. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to read a measurement from a graduated scale, stating measured digits plus the estimated digit.

CH.1.39. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to use data collected to calculate percent error.

CH.1.40. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to determine the mean of a set of measurements.

CH.1.41. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to use appropriate technology for data collection and analysis, including probeware interfaced to a graphing calculator and/or computer.

CH.1.42. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to use probeware to gather data.

CH.1.43. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to explain the emergence of modern theories based on historical development. For example, students should be able to explain the origin of the atomic theory beginning with the Greek atomists and continuing through the most modern Quantum models.

VA.CH.2. Chemistry: The student will investigate and understand that the placement of elements on the periodic table is a function of their atomic structure. The periodic table is a tool used for investigations of a) average atomic mass, mass number, and atomic number; b) isotopes, half lives, and radioactive decay; c) characteristics of subatomic particles as to mass and charge; d) families or groups; e) series and periods; f) trends including atomic radii, electronegativity, shielding effect, and ionization energy; g) electron configurations, valence electrons, and oxidation numbers; h) chemical and physical properties; and i) historical and quantum models.

CH.2.1. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers.

CH.2.2. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the atomic number of an element is the same as the number of protons.

CH.2.3. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that in a neutral atom, the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons.

CH.2.4. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that all atoms of an element have the same number of protons.

CH.2.5. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the atomic mass for each element is the weighted average of that element's naturally occurring isotopes.

CH.2.6. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that periodicity is regularly repeating patterns or trends in the chemical and physical properties of the elements arranged in the periodic table.

CH.2.7. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that horizontal rows called periods have predictable properties based on an increasing number of electrons in the outer orbitals.

CH.2.8. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that vertical columns called groups have similar properties because of their similar valence electron configurations.

CH.2.9. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom based on their energy level.

CH.2.10. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that atoms can gain, lose, or share electrons within the outer energy level.

CH.2.11. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that matter is classified by its chemical and physical properties.

CH.2.12. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that physical properties refer to the condition or quality of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition.

CH.2.13. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that chemical properties refer to the ability of a substance to undergo chemical reaction and form a new substance.

CH.2.14. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that discoveries and insights related to the atom's structure have changed the model of the atom over time.

CH.2.15. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the modern atomic theory is called the Quantum Mechanical Model.

CH.2.16. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that electrons have little mass and a negative (-) charge. They are located in electron clouds or probability clouds outside the nucleus.

CH.2.17. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that protons have a positive (+) charge. Neutrons have no charge. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom and comprise most its mass.

CH.2.18. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that an isotope is an atom that has the same number of protons as another atom of the same element but has a different number of neutrons. Some isotopes are radioactive; many are not.

CH.2.19. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that half-life is the length of time required for half of a given sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.

CH.2.20. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to, using a periodic chart, determine the atomic number, atomic mass, the number of protons, the number of electrons, and the number of neutrons of any neutral atom of a particular element.

CH.2.21. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to determine the half-life of a radioactive substance.

CH.2.22. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to describe alpha, beta, and gamma radiation with respect to penetrating power, shielding, and composition.

CH.2.23. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the Periodic Law states that when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers, their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern.

CH.2.24. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the names of groups and periods on the periodic chart are alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, halogens, noble gases, and metalloids.

CH.2.25. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that periods and groups are named by numbering columns and rows.

CH.2.26. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that some elements, such as oxygen, hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and nitrogen, naturally occur as diatomic molecules.

CH.2.27. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that electronegativity increases from left to right within a period and decreases from top to bottom within a group.

CH.2.28. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that shielding effect is constant within a given period and increases within given groups from top to bottom.

CH.2.29. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that atomic radius decreases from left to right and increases from top to bottom within given groups.

CH.2.30. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that ionization energies generally increase from left to right and decrease from top to bottom of a given group.

CH.2.31. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to use an element's electron configuration to determine the number of valence electrons and possible oxidation numbers.

CH.2.32. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy levels first (Aufbau Principle).

CH.2.33. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that an orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons (Pauli Exclusion Principle).

CH.2.34. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results (Hund's Rule).

CH.2.35. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that energy levels are designated 1-7. Orbitals are designated s, p, d, and f according to their shapes

CH.2.36. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that s, p, d, f orbitals relate to the regions of the Periodic Table.

CH.2.37. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that loss of electrons from neutral atoms results in the formation of an ion with a positive charge (cation).

CH.2.38. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that gain of electrons by a neutral atom results in the formation of an ion with a negative charge (anion).

CH.2.39. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that transition metals can have multiple oxidation states.

CH.2.40. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that matter occurs as elements (pure), compounds (pure), and mixtures, which may be homogeneous (solutions) or heterogeneous.

CH.2.41. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that important physical properties are density, conductivity, melting point, boiling point, malleability, and ductility.

CH.2.42. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that reactivity is the tendency of an element to enter into a chemical reaction.

CH.2.43. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that major insights regarding the atomic model of the atom and principal scientists include: particles - Democritus; first atomic theory of matter - John Dalton; discovery of the electron - J. J. Thompson; discovery of the nucleus - Ernest Rutherford; discovery of charge of electron - Robert Millikan; planetary model of atom - Niels Bohr; periodic table by atomic mass - Demitry Mendeleev; periodic table by atomic number - Henry Moseley; quantum nature of energy - Max Planck; uncertainty principle - Werner Heisenberg; wave theory - Louis de Broglie.

VA.CH.3. Chemistry: The student will investigate and understand how conservation of energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced equations. Key concepts include a) nomenclature; b) balancing chemical equations; c) writing chemical formulas (molecular, structural, empirical, and Lewis diagrams); d) bonding types (ionic, covalent); e) reaction types (synthesis, decomposition, single and double replacement, oxidation-reduction, neutralization, exothermic and endothermic); and f) reaction rates and kinetics (activation energy, catalysis, degree of randomness).

CH.3.1. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that conservation of matter is represented in balanced chemical equations.

CH.3.2. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that chemical formulas are used to represent compounds.

CH.3.3. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that subscripts represent the relative number of each type of atom in a molecule or formula unit.

CH.3.4. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that a coefficient is a quantity that precedes a reactant or product symbol or formula in a chemical equation and indicates the relative number of particles involved in the reaction.

CH.3.5. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that bonds form between atoms to achieve stability.

CH.3.6. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that elements and compounds react in different ways.

CH.3.7. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that spontaneous reactions may be fast or slow.

CH.3.8. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that randomness (entropy), heat content (enthalpy), and temperature affect spontaneity.

CH.3.9. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that reaction rates/kinetics are affected by activation energy, catalysis, and the degree of randomness (entropy).

CH.3.10. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that when pairs of elements form two or more compounds, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element form simple, whole-number ratios (Law of Multiple Proportions).

CH.3.11. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio in which the atoms of the elements are present in the compound.

CH.3.12. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of the substance.

CH.3.13. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that structural formulas also show the arrangements of atoms and bonds.

CH.3.14. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons.

CH.3.15. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons.

CH.3.16. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that ionization energy is the energy required to remove the most loosely held electron from a neutral atom. Elements with low ionization energy form positive ions (cations) easily. Elements with high ionization energy form negative ions (anions) easily.

CH.3.17. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that electronegativity is the measure of the attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.

CH.3.18. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that polar molecules result when a molecule behaves as if one end were positive and the other end negative.

CH.3.19. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the IUPAC system is used for naming compounds.

CH.3.20. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to name binary covalent compounds.

CH.3.21. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to name binary ionic compounds (using the Roman numeral system where appropriate).

CH.3.22. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to predict, draw, and name molecular shapes (bent, linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, and trigonal pyramidal).

CH.3.23. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to determine formulas, write equations, and balance chemical equations.

CH.3.24. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to write the chemical formulas for certain common substances, such as ammonia, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon tetraflouride.

CH.3.25. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to recognize the formulas and names of certain polyatomic ions, such as carbonate, sulfate, nitrate, hydroxide, phosphate, and ammonium, and use these polyatomic ions for naming and writing the formulas of ionic compounds.

CH.3.26. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to draw Lewis Dot Diagrams to show covalent bonding.

CH.3.27. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that major types of chemical reactions are: synthesis (A+B to AB); decomposition (BC to B+C); single replacement (A+BC to B+AC); double replacement (AC+BD to AD+BC).

CH.3.28. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that chemical reactions based on the net heat energy are exothermic reaction (heat producing) and endothermic reaction (heat absorbing).

CH.3.29. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that reactions can occur in two directions simultaneously.

CH.3.30. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that le Chatelier's Principle indicates the qualitative prediction of direction of change with temperature, pressure, and concentration.

CH.3.31. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that catalysts decrease the amount of activation energy needed.

CH.3.32. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to recognize equations for redox reactions and neutralization reactions.

CH.3.33. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to interpret reaction rate diagrams.

VA.CH.4. Chemistry: The student will investigate and understand that quantities in a chemical reaction are based on molar relationships. Key concepts include a) Avogadro's principle and molar volume; b) stoichiometric relationships; c) partial pressure; d) gas laws; e) solution concentrations; f) chemical equilibrium; and g) acid/base theory: strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes; dissociation and ionization; pH and pOH. the titration process.

CH.4.1. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that atoms and molecules are too small to count by usual means.

CH.4.2. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that a mole is a way of counting any type of particle (atoms, molecules, and formula units).

CH.4.3. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that stoichiometry involves quantitative relationships.

CH.4.4. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that stoichiometric relationships are based on mole quantities in a balanced equation.

CH.4.5. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that gases have mass and occupy space.

CH.4.6. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion and exert pressure as they collide with the walls of their containers.

CH.4.7. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that gas molecules with the lightest mass travel fastest.

CH.4.8. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that relatively large distances separate gas particles from each other.

CH.4.9. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that an Ideal Gas does not exist, but this concept is used to model gas behavior.

CH.4.10. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that a Real Gas exists, has intermolecular forces and particle volume, and can change states.

CH.4.11. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles.

CH.4.12. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that solutions can be a variety of solute/solvent combinations: gas/gas, gas/liquid, liquid/liquid, solid/liquid, gas/solid, liquid/solid, or solid/solid.

CH.4.13. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that two important classes of compounds are acids and bases.

CH.4.14. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that acids and bases are defined by several theories.

CH.4.15. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that acids and bases dissociate in varying degrees.

CH.4.16. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that Avogadro's number = 6.02 x 10 to the power of 23 particles per mole.

CH.4.17. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that molar volume = 22.4 dm to the power of 3/mole and/or 22.4 L/mole for any gas at STP.

CH.4.18. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that molar mass of a substance is its average atomic mass in grams from the Periodic Table.

CH.4.19. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that total grams of reactant(s) = total grams of product(s).

CH.4.20. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to make calculations involving the following relationships: mole-mole; mass-mass; mole-mass; mass-volume; mole-volume; and volume-volume.

CH.4.21. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to identify the limiting reactant (reagent) in a reaction.

CH.4.22. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to calculate percent yield of a reaction.

CH.4.23. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the pressure and volume of a sample of a gas at constant temperature are inversely proportional to each other (Boyle's Law).

CH.4.24. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that at constant pressure, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (Charles' Law).

CH.4.25. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the sum of the partial pressures of all the components in a gas mixture is equal to the total pressure of a gas mixture (Dalton's law of partial pressures).

CH.4.26. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that ideal Gas Law states that PV = nRT.

CH.4.27. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that molarity = moles/dm to the power of 3 or moles/L of solution.

CH.4.28. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that pressure Units include K Pa and mm of Hg.

CH.4.29. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to solve problems and interpret graphs involving the gas laws.

CH.4.30. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that Arrhenius acids are characterized by their sour taste, low pH, and the fact that they turn litmus paper red. Arrhenius bases are characterized by their bitter taste, slippery feel, high pH, and the fact that they turn litmus paper blue.

CH.4.31. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that Bronsted-Lowry-acids are proton donors, whereas bases are proton acceptors.

CH.4.32. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that the pH number denotes hydrogen (hydronium) ion concentration. The pOH number denotes hydroxide ion concentration.

CH.4.33. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that pH + pOH = 14

CH.4.34. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that pH is a number scale ranging from 0 to 14 that represents the acidity of a solution.

CH.4.35. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that [ ] refers to molar concentration.

CH.4.36. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that strong acid-strong base titration is the process that measures [H+] and [OH-].

CH.4.37. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that indicators show color changes at certain pH levels.

CH.4.38. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that strong electrolytes dissociate completely. Weak electrolytes dissociate partially.

VA.CH.5. Chemistry: The student will investigate and understand that the phases of matter are explained by kinetic theory and forces of attraction between particles. Key concepts include a) pressure, temperature, and volume; b) vapor pressure; c) phase changes; d) molar heats of fusion and vaporization; e) specific heat capacity; and f) colligative properties.

CH.5.1. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that atoms and molecules are in constant motion.

CH.5.2. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the Kinetic Molecular Theory is a model for predicting and explaining gas behavior.

CH.5.3. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that forces of attraction between molecules determine the physical changes of state.

CH.5.4. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that vapor pressure is a property of a substance determined by intermolecular forces.

CH.5.5. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that solid, liquid, and gas phases of a substance have different energy content.

CH.5.6. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that specific amounts of energy are absorbed or released during phase changes.

CH.5.7. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that specific heat capacity is a property of a substance.

CH.5.8. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that polar substances dissolve ionic or polar substances; nonpolar substances dissolve nonpolar substances.

CH.5.9. Essential Understandings: All students should understand that the number of solute particles changes the freezing point and boiling point of a pure substance.

CH.5.10. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that pressure, temperature, and volume changes can cause a change in physical state.

CH.5.11. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that forces of attraction include hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole attraction, and London dispersion (van der Waals) forces.

CH.5.12. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that a liquid's boiling point and freezing point are affected by changes in atmospheric pressure.

CH.5.13. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students are expected to know that a liquid's boiling point and freezing point are affected by the presence of certain solutes.

CH.5.14. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to graph and interpret a heating curve (temperature vs. time).

CH.5.15. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to calculate energy changes, using specific heat capacity.

CH.5.16. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to calculate energy changes, using molar heat of fusion and molar heat of vaporization.

CH.5.17. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to interpret a phase diagram of water.

CH.5.18. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to perform calorimetry calculations.

CH.5.19. Essential Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to recognize polar molecules and non-polar molecules.

VA.CH. Chemistry

CH.3. The student will investigate and understand how conservation of energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced equations. Key concepts include

CH.3.f) Reaction rates and kinetics (activation energy, catalysis, and degree of randomness).

CH.4. The student will investigate and understand that quantities in a chemical reaction are based on molar relationships. Key concepts include

CH.4.d) Gas laws;

CH.5. The student will investigate and understand that the phases of matter are explained by kinetic theory and forces of attraction between particles. Key concepts include

CH.5.a) Pressure, temperature, and volume;

CH.5.b) Vapor pressure;

CH.5.c) Phase changes;