Oregon State Standards for Science: Grade 10

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

OR.1. Physical Science: Understand structures and properties of matter and changes that occur in the physical world.

1.1. Matter: Understand structure and properties of matter.

1.1.1. Describe properties of elements and their relationship to the periodic table.

1.1.1.a. Explain atoms and their base components (protons, neutrons, and electrons) as a basis for all matter.

1.1.1.b. Read and interpret the periodic table, recognizing the relationship of the chemical and physical properties of the elements to their position on the periodic table.

1.1.1.c. Recognize that the historical development of atomic theory demonstrates how scientific knowledge changes over time, and how those changes have had an impact on society.

1.2. Matter: Describe and analyze chemical and physical changes.

1.2.1. Analyze the effects of various factors on physical changes and chemical reactions.

1.2.1.a. Describe how transformations among solids, liquids, and gases occur (change of state).

1.2.1.b. Identify factors that can influence change of state, including temperature, pressure, and concentration.

1.2.1.c. Describe chemical reactions in terms of reactants and products.

1.2.1.d. Describe the factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions.

1.2.1.e. Recognize examples that show when substances combine or break apart in a chemical reaction, the total mass remains the same (conservation of mass).

1.3. Force: Describe fundamental forces and the motions resulting from them.

1.3.1. Describe and explain the effects of multiple forces acting on an object.

1.3.1.a. Understand and apply the relationship F=ma in situations in which one force acts on an object.

1.3.1.b. Recognize that equal and opposite forces occur when one object exerts a force on another.

1.3.1.c. Describe the forces acting on an object, based on the motion of that object.

1.3.2. Recognize that gravity is a universal force.

1.3.2.a. Describe the relationship of mass and distance to gravitational force.

1.4. Energy: Explain and analyze the interaction of energy and matter.

1.4.1. Describe differences and similarities between kinds of waves, including sound, seismic, and electromagnetic, as a means of transmitting energy.

1.4.1.a. Recognize that waves of all kinds have energy that can be transferred when the waves interact with matter.

1.4.1.b. Apply the concepts of frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and energy to electromagnetic and mechanical waves.

1.4.2. Describe and analyze examples of conservation of energy.

1.4.2.a. Recognize that heat energy is a by-product of most energy transformations.

1.4.2.b. Describe ways in which energy can be transferred, including chemical reactions, nuclear reactions, and light waves.

1.4.2.c. Explain the difference between potential and kinetic energy.

1.4.2.d. Analyze the flow of energy through a system by applying the law of conservation of energy.

OR.2. Life Science: Understand structure, functions, and interactions of living organisms and the environment.

2.1. Organisms: Describe the characteristics, structure, and functions of organisms.

2.1.1. Describe, explain, and compare the structure and functions of cells in organisms.

2.1.1.a. Describe how biological systems can maintain equilibrium (homeostasis).

2.1.1.b. Identify unique structures in cells from plants, animals, and prokaryotes.

2.1.1.c. Identify cell organelles and state how their activities contribute to a particular type of cell carrying out its functions.

2.1.1.d. Explain the role of the cell membrane in cell transport.

2.1.1.e. Distinguish between active and passive transport, including diffusion and osmosis, explaining the mechanics of each.

2.1.1.f. Describe photosynthesis as a chemical process and part of the carbon cycle.

2.1.1.g. Explain how the development of tools and technology, including microscopes, has aided in the understanding of cells and microbes.

2.2. Heredity: Understand the transmission of traits in living things.

2.2.1. Explain laws of heredity and their relationship to the structure and function of DNA.

2.2.1.a. Describe the structure of DNA and the way that DNA functions to control protein synthesis.

2.2.1.b. Recognize and understand the differences between meiosis and mitosis in cellular reproduction.

2.2.1.c. Recognize that changes in DNA (mutations) and anomalies in chromosomes create changes in organisms.

2.2.1.d. Apply concepts of inheritance of traits, including Mendel's laws, Punnett squares, and pedigrees, to determine the characteristics of offspring.

2.2.1.e. Recognize the existence of technology that can alter and/or determine inherited traits.

2.3. Diversity/Interdependence: Explain and analyze the interdependence of organisms in their natural environment.

2.3.1. Describe and analyze the effect of species, including humans, on an ecosystem.

2.3.1.a. Predict outcomes of changes in resources and energy flow in an ecosystem.

2.3.1.b. Explain how humans and other species can impact an ecosystem.

2.3.1.c. Explain how the balance of resources will change with the introduction or loss of a new species within an ecosystem.

2.4. Diversity/Interdependence: Describe and analyze diversity of species, natural selection, and adaptations.

2.4.1. Analyze how living things have changed over geological time, using fossils and other scientific evidence.

2.4.1.a. Recognize that, over time, natural selection may result in development of a new species or subspecies.

2.4.1.b. Recognize that natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide an explanation for the fossil record as well as an explanation for the molecular similarities among varied species.

2.4.1.c. Explain how biological evolution can account for the diversity of species developed over time.

2.4.1.d. Explain the relationship between genetics, mutations, and biological evolution.

2.4.1.e. Explain how our understanding of evolution has changed over time.

OR.3. Earth and Space Science: Understand physical properties of the Earth, how those properties change, and the Earth's relationship to other celestial bodies.

3.1. The Dynamic Earth: Identify the structure of the Earth system and the availability and use of the materials that make up that system.

3.1.1. Describe how the importance and use of resources has changed over time with changes in economic and technological systems.

3.1.1.a. Predict consequences of increased consumption of renewable and non-renewable resources.

3.2. The Dynamic Earth: Explain and analyze changes occurring within the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

3.2.1. Analyze the relationship between global energy transfer and climate.

3.2.1.a. Describe the effect of various gases in the atmosphere on the amount of energy retained by the Earth system.

3.2.1.b. Describe how solar radiation and the amount that reaches Earth is affected by stratospheric ozone.

3.2.1.c. Describe how differential heating of the Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans produces wind and ocean currents.

3.2.2. Analyze evidence of ongoing evolution of the Earth system.

3.2.2.a. Describe methods of determining ages of rocks and fossils.

3.2.2.b. Use rock sequences and fossil evidence to determine geologic history.

3.2.2.c. Describe and analyze theories of Earth's origin and early history using scientific evidence.

3.2.2.d. Describe how earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mountain building, and continental movements result from slow plate motions.

3.2.2.e. Describe how the evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen.

3.2.2.f. Identify how volcanic eruptions and impacts of huge rocks from space can cause widespread effects on climate.

3.3. The Earth in Space: Explain relationships among the Earth, sun, moon, and the solar system.

3.3.1. Explain how mass and distance affect the interaction between Earth and other objects in space.

3.3.1.a. Recognize that the sun's gravitational pull holds the Earth and other planets in their orbits, just as the planets' gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them.

3.3.1.b. Explain that the force of gravity between Earth and other objects in space depends only upon their masses and the distances between them.

3.4. The Universe: Describe natural objects, events, and processes outside the Earth, both past and present.

OR.4. Scientific Inquiry: Use interrelated processes to pose questions and investigate the physical and living world.

4.1. Forming the Question/Hypothesis: Make observations. Formulate and express scientific questions or hypotheses to be investigated based on the observations.

4.1.1. Based on observations and scientific concepts, ask questions or form hypotheses that can be answered or tested through scientific investigations.

4.2. Designing the Investigation: Design scientific investigations to address and explain questions or hypotheses.

4.2.1. Design a scientific investigation that provides sufficient data to answer a question or test a hypothesis.

4.3. Collecting and Presenting Data: Collect, organize, and display scientific data.

4.3.1. Collect, organize, and display sufficient data to facilitate scientific analysis and interpretation.

4.4. Analyzing and Interpreting Results: Analyze scientific information to develop and present conclusions.

4.4.1. Summarize and analyze data, evaluating sources of error or bias. Propose explanations that are supported by data and knowledge of scientific terminology.

OR.H.1 Structure and Function: A system's characteristics, form, and function are attributed to the quantity, type, and nature of its components.

H.1P.1 Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how the composition of the nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity. (Physical Science)

H.1P.2 Describe how different types and strengths of bonds affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds. (Physical Science)

H.1L.1 Compare and contrast the four types of organic macromolecules. Explain how they compose the cellular structures of organisms and are involved in critical cellular processes. (Life Science)

H.1L.2 Describe the chemical structure of DNA and its relationship to chromosomes. Explain the role of DNA in protein synthesis. (Life Science)

H.1L.3 Explain and apply laws of heredity and their relationship to the structure and function of DNA. (Life Science)

H.1L.4 Explain how cellular processes and cellular differentiation are regulated both internally and externally in response to the environments in which they exist. (Life Science)

H.1E.1 Classify the bodies in our solar system based on properties and composition. Describe attributes of our galaxy and evidence for multiple galaxies in the universe. (Earth and Space Science)

H.1E.2 Describe the structure and composition of Earth's atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere. (Earth and Space Science)

OR.H.2 Interaction and Change: The components in a system can interact in dynamic ways that may result in change. In systems, changes occur with a flow of energy and/or transfer of matter.

H.2P.1 Explain how chemical reactions result from the making and breaking of bonds in a process that absorbs or releases energy. Explain how the rate of a chemical reaction is affected by temperature, pressure, and concentration. (Physical Science)

H.2P.2 Explain how physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. (Physical Science)

H.2P.3 Describe the interactions of energy and matter including the law of conservation of energy. (Physical Science)

H.2P.4 Apply the laws of motion and gravitation to describe the interaction of forces acting on an object and the resultant motion. (Physical Science)

H.2L.1 Explain how energy and chemical elements pass through systems. Describe how chemical elements are combined and recombined in different ways as they cycle through the various levels of organization in biological systems. (Life Science)

H.2L.2 Explain how ecosystems change in response to disturbances and interactions. Analyze the relationships among biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems. (Life Science)

H.2L.3 Describe how asexual and sexual reproduction affect genetic diversity. (Life Science)

H.2L.4 Explain how biological evolution is the consequence of the interactions of genetic variation, reproduction and inheritance, natural selection, and time. (Life Science)

H.2L.5 Explain how multiple lines of scientific evidence support biological evolution. (Life Science)

H.2E.1 Identify and predict the effect of energy sources, physical forces, and transfer processes that occur in the Earth system. Describe how matter and energy are cycled between system components over time. (Earth and Space Science)

H.2E.2 Explain how Earth's atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere change over time and at varying rates. Explain techniques used to elucidate the history of events on Earth. (Earth and Space Science)

H.2E.3 Describe how the universe, galaxies, stars, and planets evolve over time. (Earth and Space Science)

H.2E.4 Evaluate the impact of human activities on environmental quality and the sustainability of Earth systems. Describe how environmental factors influence resource management. (Earth and Space Science)

OR.H.3 Scientific Inquiry: Scientific inquiry is the investigation of the natural world by a systematic process that includes proposing a testable question or hypothesis and developing procedures for questioning, collecting, analyzing, and interpreting multiple forms of accurate and relevant data to produce justifiable evidence-based explanations and new explorations.

H.3S.1 Based on observations and science principles formulate a question or hypothesis that can be investigated through the collection and analysis of relevant information. (Scientific Inquiry)

H.3S.2 Design and conduct a controlled experiment, field study, or other investigation to make systematic observations about the natural world, including the collection of sufficient and appropriate data. (Scientific Inquiry)

H.3S.3 Analyze data and identify uncertainties. Draw a valid conclusion, explain how it is supported by the evidence, and communicate the findings of a scientific investigation. (Scientific Inquiry)

H.3S.4 Identify examples from the history of science that illustrate modification of scientific knowledge in light of challenges to prevailing explanations. (Scientific Inquiry)

H.3S.5 Explain how technological problems and advances create a demand for new scientific knowledge and how new knowledge enables the creation of new technologies. (Scientific Inquiry)

OR.H.4 Engineering Design: Engineering design is a process of formulating problem statements, identifying criteria and constraints, proposing and testing possible solutions, incorporating modifications based on test data, and communicating the recommendations.

H.4D.1 Define a problem and specify criteria for a solution within specific constraints or limits based on science principles. Generate several possible solutions to a problem and use the concept of trade-offs to compare them in terms of criteria and constraints. (Engineering Design)

H.4D.2 Create and test or otherwise analyze at least one of the more promising solutions. Collect and process relevant data. Incorporate modifications based on data from testing or other analysis. (Engineering Design)

H.4D.3 Analyze data, identify uncertainties, and display data so that the implications for the solution being tested are clear. (Engineering Design)

H.4D.4 Recommend a proposed solution, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and describe how it is better than alternative designs. Identify further engineering that might be done to refine the recommendations. (Engineering Design)

H.4D.5 Describe how new technologies enable new lines of scientific inquiry and are largely responsible for changes in how people live and work. (Engineering Design)

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