Ohio State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 9

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

OH.1. History: Students use materials drawn from the diversity of human experience to analyze and interpret significant events, patterns and themes in the history of Ohio, the United States and the world.

1.A. Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.

1.B. Explain the social, political and economic effects of industrialization.

1.C. Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was controlled.

1.D. Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of World War II.

1.E. Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War and contemporary conflicts.

1.F. Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.

1.1. Grade Level Indicator: Enlightenment Ideas: Explain how Enlightenment ideas produced enduring effects on political, economic and cultural institutions, including challenges to religious authority, monarchy and absolutism.

1.2. Grade Level Indicator: Enlightenment Ideas: Explain connections among Enlightenment ideas, the American Revolution, the French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

1.3. Grade Level Indicator: Industrialization: Explain the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution with emphasis on: How scientific and technological changes promoted industrialization in the textile industry in England; The impact of the growth of population, rural-to-urban migrations, growth of industrial cities, and emigration out of Europe; The changing role of labor and the rise of the union movement; Changes in living and working conditions for the early industrial working class, especially women and children; The growth of industrialization around the world.

1.4. Grade Level Indicator: Imperialism: Describe the political, economic and social roots of imperialism.

1.5. Grade Level Indicator: Imperialism: Analyze the perspectives of the colonizers and the colonized concerning: Indigenous language; Natural resources; Labor; Political systems; Religion.

1.6. Grade Level Indicator: Imperialism: Explain the global impact of imperialism including: Modernization of Japan; Political and social reform in China; Exploitation of African resources.

1.7. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I with emphasis on: Militarism, imperialism, nationalism and alliances; The global scope, outcomes and human costs of the war; The role of new technologies and practices including the use of poison gas, trench warfare, machine guns, airplanes, submarines and tanks; The Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.

1.8. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Analyze the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution including: The lack of economic, political and social reforms under the tsars; The impact of World War I; The emergence of Lenin, Stalin and the Bolsheviks; The rise of communism in Russia.

1.9. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Assess the global impact of post-World War I economic, social and political turmoil including: Disarmament; Worldwide depression; Colonial rebellion; Rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Europe and Asia.

1.10. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Analyze the causes of World War II including: Appeasement; Axis expansion; The role of the Allies.

1.11. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Analyze the consequences of World War II including: Atomic weapons; Civilian and military losses; The Holocaust and its impact; Refugees and poverty; The United Nations; The establishment of the state of Israel.

1.12. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Analyze the impact of conflicting political and economic ideologies after World War II that resulted in the Cold War including: Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe; The division of Germany; The emergence of NATO and the Warsaw Pact; The Chinese Communist Revolution.

1.13. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Examine social, economic and political struggles resulting from colonialism and imperialism including: Independence movements in India, Indochina and Africa; Rise of dictatorships in former colonies.

1.14. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Explain the causes and consequences of the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War including: The arms build-up; Ethnic unrest in the Soviet Union; Independence movements in former Soviet satellites; Global decline of communism.

1.15. Grade Level Indicator: 20th Century Conflict: Examine regional and ethnic conflict in the post-Cold War era including: Persistent conflict in the Middle East; Ethnic strife in Europe, Africa and Asia.

OH.2. People in Societies: Students use knowledge of perspectives, practices and products of cultural, ethnic and social groups to analyze the impact of their commonality and diversity within local, national, regional and global settings.

2.A. Analyze the influence of different cultural perspectives on the actions of groups.

2.B. Analyze the consequences of oppression, discrimination and conflict between cultures.

2.C. Analyze the ways that contacts between people of different cultures result in exchanges of cultural practices.

2.1. Grade Level Indicator: Cultures: Analyze examples of how people in different cultures view events from different perspectives including: Creation of the state of Israel; Partition of India and Pakistan; Reunification of Germany; End of apartheid in South Africa.

2.2. Grade Level Indicator: Interaction: Analyze the results of political, economic, and social oppression and the violation of human rights including: The exploitation of indigenous peoples; The Holocaust and other acts of genocide, including those that have occurred in Armenia, Rwanda, Bosnia and Iraq.

2.3. Grade Level Indicator: Diffusion: Explain how advances in communication and transportation have impacted: Globalization; Cooperation and conflict; The environment; Collective security; Popular culture; Political systems; Religion.

OH.3 Geography: Students use knowledge of geographic locations, patterns and processes to show the interrelationship between the physical environment and human activity, and to explain the interactions that occur in an increasingly interdependent world.

3.A. Analyze the cultural, physical, economic and political characteristics that define regions and describe reasons that regions change over time.

3.B. Analyze geographic changes brought about by human activity using appropriate maps and other geographic data.

3.C. Analyze the patterns and processes of movement of people, products and ideas.

3.1. Grade Level Indicator: Places and Regions: Interpret data to make comparisons between and among countries and regions including: Birth rates; Death rates; Infant mortality rates; Education levels; Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

3.2. Grade Level Indicator: Places and Regions: Explain how differing points of view play a role in conflicts over territory and resources.

3.3. Grade Level Indicator: Places and Regions: Explain how political and economic conditions, resources, geographic locations and cultures have contributed to cooperation and conflict.

3.4. Grade Level Indicator: Human Environmental Interaction: Explain the causes and consequences of urbanization including economic development, population growth and environmental change.

3.5. Grade Level Indicator: Movement: Analyze the social, political, economic and environmental factors that have contributed to human migration now and in the past.

OH.4. Economics: Students use economic reasoning skills and knowledge of major economic concepts, issues and systems in order to make informed choices as producers, consumers, savers, investors, workers and citizens in an interdependent world.

4.A. Compare how different economic systems answer the fundamental economic questions of what goods and services to produce, how to produce them, and who will consume them.

4.B. Explain how the U.S. government provides public services, redistributes income, regulates economic activity, and promotes economic growth and stability.

4.1. Grade Level Indicator: Markets: Describe costs and benefits of trade with regard to: Standard of living; Productive capacity; Usage of productive resources; Infrastructure.

4.2. Grade Level Indicator: Markets: Explain how changing methods of production and a country's productive resources affect how it answers the fundamental economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

4.3. Grade Level Indicator: Markets: Analyze characteristics of traditional, market, command and mixed economies with regard to: Private property; Freedom of enterprise; Competition and consumer choice; The role of government.

4.4. Grade Level Indicator: Government and the Economy: Analyze the economic costs and benefits of protectionism, tariffs, quotas and blockades on international trade.

OH.5. Government: Students use knowledge of the purposes, structures and processes of political systems at the local, state, national and international levels to understand that people create systems of government as structures of power and authority to provide order, maintain stability and promote the general welfare.

5.A. Analyze the evolution of the Constitution through post-Reconstruction amendments and Supreme Court decisions.

5.B. Analyze the differences among various forms of government to determine how power is acquired and used.

5.1. Grade Level Indicator: Systems of Government: Explain how various systems of governments acquire, use and justify their power.

5.2. Grade Level Indicator: Systems of Government: Analyze the purposes, structures and functions of various systems of government including: Absolute monarchies; Constitutional monarchies; Parliamentary democracies; Presidential democracies; Dictatorships; Theocracies.

OH.6. Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities: Students use knowledge of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in order to examine and evaluate civic ideals and to participate in community life and the American democratic system.

6.A. Analyze ways people achieve governmental change, including political action, social protest and revolution.

6.B. Explain how individual rights are relative, not absolute, and describe the balance between individual rights, the rights of others, and the common good.

6.1. Grade Level Indicator: Participation: Analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizen action on public policy including: The French Revolution; The international movement to abolish the slave trade and slavery; The Russian Revolution; The independence movement in India; The fall of communism in Europe; The end of apartheid.

6.2. Grade Level Indicator: Participation: Describe and compare opportunities for citizen participation under different systems of government including: Absolute monarchies; Constitutional monarchies; Parliamentary democracies; Presidential democracies; Dictatorships; Theocracies.

6.3. Grade Level Indicator: Participation: Analyze how governments and other groups have used propaganda to influence public opinion and behavior.

OH.7. Social Studies Skills and Methods: Students collect, organize, evaluate and synthesize information from multiple sources to draw logical conclusions. Students communicate this information using appropriate social studies terminology in oral, written or multimedia form and apply what they have learned to societal issues in simulated or real-world settings.

7.A. Evaluate the reliability and credibility of sources.

7.B. Use data and evidence to support or refute a thesis.

7.1. Grade Level Indicator: Thinking and Organizing: Detect bias and propaganda in primary and secondary sources of information.

7.2. Grade Level Indicator: Thinking and Organizing: Evaluate the credibility of sources for: Logical fallacies; Consistency of arguments; Unstated assumptions; Bias.

7.3. Grade Level Indicator: Thinking and Organizing: Analyze the reliability of sources for: Accurate use of facts; Adequate support of statements; Date of publication.

7.4. Grade Level Indicator: Communicating Information: Develop and present a research project including: Collection of data; Narrowing and refining the topic; Construction and support of the thesis.

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