New Hampshire State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 9

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NH.3. Civics and Governments: The goal of Civics is to educate students to understand the purpose, structure, and functions of government; the political process; the rule of law; and world affairs. Civics builds on a foundation of history, geography, and economics to teach students to become responsible, knowledgeable citizens, committed to participation in public affairs.

3.1. The Nature and Purpose of Government: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of governments, and the fundamental ideals of government of the United States. Identify the structures and functions of government at various levels, e.g., county - role of the sheriff's office, or nation - role of providing the defense of the country. Examine how institutions and individuals make, apply, and enforce rules and laws, e.g., the Federal Communications Commission regulations on television broadcast standards or local public hearings on zoning regulations. Evaluate how the purposes of government have been interpreted, e.g., promoting the general welfare or protection of private property. Explain how in the United States legitimate authority derives from custom, law and consent of the governed, e.g., the Mayflower Compact or local curfews.

3.2. Structure and Function of United States and New Hampshire Government: Students will demonstrate an understanding of major provisions of the United States and New Hampshire Constitutions, and the organization and operation of government at all levels including the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Describe how the fundamental ideals and principles of American government are incorporated in the United States Constitution and the New Hampshire Constitution, e.g., the rule of law or individual rights and responsibilities. Analyze the evolution of the United States Constitution as a living document, e.g., the Bill of Rights or Plessy v. Ferguson. Describe the roles and responsibilities of the United States and New Hampshire judicial systems, e.g., resolution of conflict between states or New Hampshire Legislature's use of advisory opinions from the New Hampshire Supreme Court. Evaluate how individual rights have been extended in the United States, e.g., Truman's integration of the Armed Services or the Miranda decision.

3.3. The World and the United States' Place In It: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries, and the role of the United States in world affairs. Discuss the impact on world affairs and the United States' response to environmental, economic, and technological issues, e.g., intellectual property rights or global warming. Discuss the relationship between domestic and foreign policy, e.g., farm subsidies or the impact of the 2003 Iraq war on the United Kingdom, the United States, and Spain. Discuss the impact of United States' contributions to the ideals of democracy and representative government on world affairs, e.g., the United States Constitution or free elections.

3.4. Rights and Responsibilities: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government through the political process and citizen involvement. Demonstrate responsible practices within the political process, e.g., registering to vote or taking civic action. Investigate how knowledgeable and engaged citizens have acted to preserve and extend their liberties, e.g., writing letters to the editor or participating in town meetings. Explain why the preservation of liberty requires the participation of knowledgeable and engaged citizens, e.g., writing letters to the editor or participating in town meetings.

NH.4. Economics: Economics is the study of the allocation and utilization of limited resources to meet society's unlimited needs and wants, including how goods and services are produced and distributed. Through economics, students examine the relationship between costs and benefits. They develop an understanding of basic economic concepts; economics in history; how economics affects and is affected by the individual; cycles in the economy; financial institutions and government; and international economics and trade. The goal of economic education is to prepare students to make effective decisions as consumers, producers, savers, investors, and as citizens.

4.1. Economics and the Individual: Students will learn about their role in a free market, how decisions that they make affect the economy, and how changes in the economy can affect them. Examine the roles of workers and consumers in factor and product markets, e.g., how labor or private property can be used as a productive resource. Conceptualize how events in the business cycle impact individual lives, e.g., career or consumer choices.

4.2. Basic Economic Concepts: Students will learn about the pillars of a free market economy and the market mechanism. Explain how the allocation of resources impact productivity and ultimately economic growth, e.g., worker migrations. Use a circular flow model to explain the interdependence of business, government and households in the factor and product markets. Interpret demand and supply schedules/graphs including the influences on price elasticity, e.g., the impact of downloading music from the internet. Describe the similarities and differences among monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic and pure competition, e.g., ease of entry and degree of price control. Analyze the similarities and differences among sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations, e.g., number of owners and financing options.

4.3. Cycles in the Economy: Students will be able to explain the business cycle and trends in economic activity over time. Recognize the economic indicators that create or reflect changes in the business cycle, e.g., new home construction or number of unemployment claims. Explain the different types of inflation, e.g., cost-push or structural. Apply the consumer price index to demonstrate comparative values over time, e.g., the purchasing power of the dollar. Explain the different types of unemployment, e.g., frictional or cyclical.

4.4. Financial Institutions and the Government: Students will understand how financial institutions and the government work together to stabilize our economy, and how changes in them affect the individual. Analyze the effect of government actions on financial institutions, e.g., securities and exchange regulations or the New Hampshire Banking Commission Explain the components of the money supply, e.g., currency or money market accounts. Distinguish between monetary policy and fiscal policy and how they influence the economy, e.g., the reserve ratio or taxation.

4.5. International Economics and Trade: Students will recognize the importance of international trade and how economies are affected by it. Explain how comparative advantage affects trade decisions, e.g., importing steel or exporting capital equipment. Analyze the reasons for changes in international currency values, e.g., interest rates or the balance of trade. Examine how various national economic policies have led to changes in the international economy, e.g., mercantilism or privatization.

4.6. Personal Finance: Students will be able to explain the importance of money management, spending credit, saving, and investing in a free market economy. Compare the risk, rate of return, and liquidity of investment. Identify and analyze sources of consumer credit. Explain factors that affect creditworthiness and identify ways to avoid and correct credit problems. Describe how insurance and other risk management strategies protect against financial loss.

NH.5. Geography: The real crux of geography is understanding our physical Earth and human-environment interaction: knowing why people settle in an area, how they make their living and the resources they use, why they dress or speak the way they do, and what they do for entertainment. A geographically informed person can draw connections between locations of the Earth, recognize complex regional patterns, and appreciate the influence of place on human development.

5.1. The World in Spatial Terms: Students will demonstrate the ability to use maps, mental maps, globes, and other graphic tools and technologies to acquire, process, report, and analyze geographic information. Use graphic tools to depict geographic issues, e.g., ice production in the Philippines or voting patterns in the United States. Demonstrate how mental maps reflect the human perception of places, e.g., people's decisions to migrate or attitudes towards other cultures. Analyze spatial interactions and models of spatial organization, e.g., trade flows between countries or location of industry in areas of low production costs.

5.2. Places and Regions: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions. Discuss the changing meaning and significance of place, e.g., London as a Roman outpost in Britain or as the center of a global empire in the 1800s. Investigate how relationships between humans and the physical environment lead to the formation of 'place,' e.g., terracing of hillsides or oasis agriculture. Describe the structure of regional systems, e.g., how small cities are linked to larger cities. Utilize regions to analyze geographic issues, e.g., the cotton South v. the industrial North prior to the Civil War or tensions within the European Union. Recognize that places and regions serve as symbols for individuals and societies, e.g., Mecca or Salt Lake City.

5.3. Physical Systems: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems. Explain the interaction of Earth's physical systems, e.g., tectonic forces that shape continents and ocean basins. Demonstrate the spatial variation in physical processes across Earth's surface, e.g., monsoon patterns or desertification. Illustrate the characteristics of different ecosystems, e.g., the location of temperate rain forests or the factors and processes involved in the formation of soils. Compare the carrying capacity of different ecosystems in relation to land use, e.g., steppe or savanna. Recognize the importance of ecosystems in people's understanding of environmental issues, e.g., the long-term effects of acid rain on water bodies or forest fires and management.

5.4. Human Systems: Students will demonstrate an understanding of human migration; the complexity of cultural mosaics; economic interdependence; human settlement patterns; and the forces of cooperation and conflict among peoples. Identify world population trends in both numbers and patterns, e.g., urban development or the availability of water. Distinguish how culture traits shape the character of a region, e.g., Buddhism in Southeast Asia or the French language in Quebec. Recognize the increasing economic interdependence of the world's countries, e.g., the geographic consequences of an international debt crisis or the location of oil reserves. Classify the functions, sizes, and spatial arrangements of urban areas, e.g., how cities differ from towns and villages. Demonstrate how cooperation and conflict are involved in shaping the distribution of social, political, and economic spaces on Earth at different scales, e.g., the reunification of Germany or the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda. Identify economic activities in more developed or less developed countries and their evolution, e.g., primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary economic activities.

5.5. Environment and Society: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions between Earth's physical and human systems. Appraise the significance of the global impact of human modification of the physical environment, e.g., the dispersal of animal and plant species worldwide or soil degradation. Explain how changes in the physical environment can diminish its capacity to support human activity, e.g., the rainforests in central Africa or the Great Plains Dust Bowl. Consider how humans perceive and react to natural hazards, e.g., flood plains in New Hampshire or earthquake zones. Examine how the spatial distribution of resources affects patterns of human settlement, e.g., the creation of ghost towns in mining areas of Colorado or the growth of Johannesburg, South Africa. Explore how the use and development of natural resources use change over time, e.g., energy sources in Siberia or the changes in the use of petroleum. Evaluate the management and use of renewable, non-renewable, flow and potential resources, e.g., overfishing or recycling.

NH.6. New Hampshire and United States History: The study of New Hampshire and United States History is important in helping citizens understand and appreciate the legacy of our republic, and to develop the empathy and analytical skills needed to participate intelligently and responsibly in our ongoing democratic experiment. Historical study exposes students to the enduring themes and issues of our past and emboldens them to courageously and compassionately meet the contemporary challenges they will face as individuals in a state, a country and an interdependent world. Ultimately, the study of history will help students plan and implement responsible actions that support and enhance our collective values.

6.1. Political Foundations and Development: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the major ideas, issues and events pertaining to the history of governance in our state and nation. Account for the rise and fall of political parties and movements and their impact, e.g., the Whig Party or the Progressive Movement. Analyze how religion has influenced the political life of the nation, e.g., the separation of church and state in early New Hampshire or the rise of the Moral Majority. Analyze the roots and application of the federal system of government by examining key documents and events, e.g., the Articles of Confederation or the New Deal. Examine the impact of sectionalism on national crises and United States government policies, e.g., Hartford Convention or Brown v. Board of Education.

6.2. Contacts, Exchanges & International Relations: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events, actions and policies of our nation in relation to other peoples and governments over time. Examine the role of New Hampshire in international diplomacy, e.g., the Webster-Ashburton Treaty or the Bretton Woods Economic Conference. Analyze how United States foreign policy has varied from periods of international involvement, to isolationism, to exerting power and dominance at different time periods, e.g., the Era of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars or the two World Wars. Decide to what extent democratic ideals, economic motives and empire building have influenced U.S. foreign policy in events and policies, e.g., Jefferson's Embargo Act or the Spanish American War. Determine the extent to which Manifest Destiny has been a driving force behind American ideology, e.g., Roger Williams and the founding of Rhode Island and the Providence Plantations or the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Investigate United States involvement in and/or conflict with regional and international organizations, e.g., the League of Nations or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

6.3. World Views and Value systems and their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions: Students will demonstrate an understanding of conceptions of reality, ideals, guidelines of behavior and forms of expression. Evaluate how individuals have developed ideas that have profoundly affected American life, e.g., transcendentalism or relativism. Analyze how the arts and science often reflect and/or influence major ideas, values and conflicts of particular time periods, e.g., the impact of the Enlightenment on the founding of our nation or the Harlem Renaissance. Critique how the art, music and literature of our nation have been influenced by groups, e.g., the Spanish colonists in the Southwest or the 60s counter culture movement. Analyze the spread of American ideas and culture around the world using examples, e.g., the Bill of Rights or popular music.

6.4. Economic Systems & Technology: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time. Analyze how westward movement led to increased personal opportunities and a more diverse economy as seen in events, e.g., the Northwest Ordinance or Alaskan statehood. Evaluate the impact of major developments and changes in American economic productivity, e.g., the factory system or the emergence of a service-based economy. Explain how the development of technology has both simplified and complicated work, e.g., the development of interchangeable parts or the 'paperless' office. Examine how economic interactions have occurred on an increasingly global scale, e.g., mercantilism or North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Explain how the economy over time has shaped the distribution of wealth, e.g., the development of the middle class or the recent outsourcing of United States' jobs.

6.5. Social/Cultural: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interaction of various social groups, including their values, beliefs and practices, over time. Explore the tensions between the values of unity and pluralism in defining our national identity, e.g., the Puritans v Anne Hutchinson or the counter-culture vs. the silent majority. Evaluate the changing roles of gender in society, e.g., the ideal of 'Republican Motherhood' or Title IX. Explore attitudes toward diversity held by and groups and individuals, e.g., antebellum Southerners or Eleanor Roosevelt. Examine the impact of social class on life in the United States, e.g., democracy in the Age of Jackson or public education. Analyze how religious ideas of morality have impacted social change, e.g., the Abolitionist Movement or the debate over legalized abortion.

NH.7. World History and Contemporary Issues: The study of World History and Contemporary Issues is important in helping citizens understand and appreciate the contemporary challenges they will face as individuals in an interdependent, increasingly connected world. Knowledge of past achievements and failures of different peoples and nations provides citizens of the 21st century with a broader context within which to address the many issues facing our nation and the world. World History fosters an appreciation of the roots of our nation's values and the values and perspectives of other peoples. It illustrates how humans have expressed themselves in different surroundings and at different times, revealing the many commonalties and differences shared by the world's peoples past and present.

7.1. Political Foundations and Developments: Students will demonstrate an understanding of major events, ideas and issues pertaining to the history of governance. Describe the development of different political systems, e.g., the city-state, nation-state or the European Union. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of international and regional political organizations, e.g., the Delian League, the United Nations or the Warsaw Pact. Analyze the impact of modern weapons of mass destruction on world relations during eras, e.g., the World Wars, the Cold War or contemporary times. Analyze the impact on political institutions of mass movements, e.g., the French Revolution, Taiping Rebellion, or anti-apartheid protest in South Africa Evaluate the influence of religion on political systems, e.g., priestesses in Sumeria, Hinduism in Southeast Asia, or Islam in Africa.

7.2. Contacts, Exchanges & International Relations: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the interactions of peoples and governments over time. Describe how traders and merchants have been instrumental in spreading ideas and beliefs to new areas, e.g., Arab traders in Africa, Europeans to Australia and Micronesia, or Western business representatives in East Asia. Evaluate how military encounters have often led to cultural exchanges, e.g., T'ang expansion, Mongol conquests, or World War II. Assess the impact of migrations of peoples on the receiving societies, e.g., Chinese to Southeast Asia, Europeans to Latin America, or formerly colonized peoples to Europe. Evaluate the effectiveness of attempts to regulate warfare and sustain peaceful contacts, e.g., arranged marriages between ruling families, the League of Nations, or nuclear non-proliferation treaties.

7.3. World Views and Value systems and their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions: Students will demonstrate their understanding of conceptions of reality, ideals, guidelines of behavior and their forms of expression. Describe how people's differences in religion have often led to conflict in regions of the world, e.g., the Roman Empire, the Holy Land, or the Indian subcontinent. Analyze how philosophic systems and social theories are powerful forces throughout history, e.g., Stoicism, neo-Confucianism, or liberation theology. Examine how gender and ethnicity have been conceptualized in the arts, e.g., epic literature, African wood carvings, or film. Consider how art, music, and literature often reflect or influence major ideas, values and conflicts of particular time periods, e.g., pre-Columbian America, the Renaissance, or eras of intense nationalism.

7.4. Economic Systems & Technology: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time. Analyze various systems of distributing wealth, e.g., feudalism, free market economies, or the welfare state. Analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution around the world, e.g., the emergence of the factory system or the search for markets in Asia and Africa. Analyze the development and impact of various labor systems, e.g., slavery, the medieval guilds, or wage labor. Examine the development and impact of medical innovations, e.g., Buddhist hospitals, the discovery of germs, or stem cell research. Consider the relationship between weapons development and political or economic power, e.g., the horse-drawn chariot, gunpowder, or nuclear weapons.

7.5. Social/Cultural: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the diversity of values, beliefs, and practices of individuals and groups over time. Assess the impact of urbanization on the world environment, e.g., Rome or Sao Paulo. Examine the role and impact of religious ideas on daily life and social norms, e.g., rites of passage, personal morality, or dietary practices. Analyze struggles for cultural continuity by Diaspora communities, e.g., ethnic Chinese, Jews, or Roma (gypsies). Examine gender roles in societies, e.g., ancient Athens, the Mali Empire, or contemporary Latin America. Determine the basis for ranking social groups within a given culture, e.g., religious knowledge, wealth, or military power.

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