New Hampshire State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 8

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NH.3. Civics and Governments: The goal of Civics is to educate students to understand the purpose, structure, and functions of government; the political process; the rule of law; and world affairs. Civics builds on a foundation of history, geography, and economics to teach students to become responsible, knowledgeable citizens, committed to participation in public affairs.

3.1. The Nature and Purpose of Government: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of governments, and the fundamental ideals of government of the United States.

3.1.8.1. Explain why limiting the powers of government is essential for the protection of individual rights. 18
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.1.8.1.

3.1.8.2. Analyze the major arguments for and against representative government as distinguished from direct democracy, and discuss how, in a representative democracy, minority rights are protected. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.1.8.2.

3.2. Structure and Function of United States and New Hampshire Government: Students will demonstrate an understanding of major provisions of the United States and New Hampshire Constitutions, and the organization and operation of government at all levels including the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

3.2.8.1. Define the organization and responsibilities of federal government that are set forth in the New Hampshire Constitution, the United States Constitution and their amendments, e.g., Separation of Powers, Division of Powers, or the Bill of Rights. 19
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.2.8.1.

3.2.8.2. Compare and contrast the structure and major responsibilities and services of government at the local, state, and federal levels as set forth in the New Hampshire Constitution and the United States Constitution, e.g., taxation, transportation, or education. 19
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.2.8.2.

3.2.8.3. Describe ways in which particular events and documents contributed to the evolution of American government, e.g., states' rights, universal suffrage, or civil rights. 19
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.2.8.3.

3.2.8.4. Explain the legislative and political processes by which a bill becomes a law or government policy is established at the local, state, and federal levels, e.g., citizen petitions or conference committees. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.2.8.4.

3.3. The World and the United States' Place In It: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries, and the role of the United States in world affairs.

3.3.8.1. Illustrate the importance of countries working together to resolve problems, e.g., the United Nations, NATO, or the European Union. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.3.8.1.

3.3.8.2. Analyze environmental, economic, and technological developments and their impact on society. 11
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.3.8.2.

3.4. Rights and Responsibilities: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government through the political process and citizen involvement.

3.4.8.1. Describe and analyze ways Americans can effectively participate in civic and political life at the local, state, and federal levels, e.g., problem solving, public engagement, or voting. 17
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.4.8.1.

NH.4. Economics: Economics is the study of the allocation and utilization of limited resources to meet society's unlimited needs and wants, including how goods and services are produced and distributed. Through economics, students examine the relationship between costs and benefits. They develop an understanding of basic economic concepts; economics in history; how economics affects and is affected by the individual; cycles in the economy; financial institutions and government; and international economics and trade. The goal of economic education is to prepare students to make effective decisions as consumers, producers, savers, investors, and as citizens.

4.1. Economics and the Individual: Students will learn about their role in a free market, how decisions that they make affect the economy, and how changes in the economy can affect them. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.1.

4.1.8.1. Identify how events in the business cycle impact individuals' lives, e.g., recession or depression. 10
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.1.8.1.

4.2. Basic Economic Concepts: Students will learn about the pillars of a free market economy and the market mechanism.

4.2.8.1. Identify and explain the determinants of supply and demand, e.g., income, tastes, or technology. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.8.1.

4.2.8.2. Explain the elements of entrepreneurship, e.g., idea development, risk-taking, or management skills. 20
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.8.2.

4.3. Cycles in the Economy: Students will be able to explain the business cycle and trends in economic activity over time.

4.3.8.1. Identify and explain the different phases of the business cycle, e.g., recession or depression. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.3.8.1.

4.3.8.2. Understand how the stock market works, the buying and selling of stocks, and how it affects the economy. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.3.8.2.

4.4. Financial Institutions and the Government: Students will understand how financial institutions and the government work together to stabilize our economy, and how changes in them affect the individual.

4.4.8.1. Explain how interest rates affect individual decisions, e.g., saving, borrowing, or lending money. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.4.8.1.

4.4.8.2. Identify the different ways in which income can be redistributed, e.g., taxes, welfare, or government loans. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.4.8.2.

4.5. International Economics and Trade: Students will recognize the importance of international trade and how economies are affected by it.

4.5.8.1. Distinguish among the different methods of allocating resources, e.g., traditional, free market, or command economies. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.8.1.

4.5.8.2. Identify and explain the impact on trade of government policies, e.g., tariffs, quotas, or embargoes. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.8.2.

4.5.8.3. Recognize the role of economics in international diplomacy and war, e.g., the United States Civil War, foreign aid, or conflict over natural resources. 26
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.8.3.

4.5.8.4. Examine the effects of changing economies on international trade, e.g., modernization, specialization, or interdependence. 11
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.8.4.

4.6. Personal Finance: Students will be able to explain the importance of money management, spending credit, saving, and investing in a free market economy.

4.6.8.1. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of different payment methods. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.1.

4.6.8.2. Describe the rights and responsibilities of buyers and sellers in a free market economy. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.2.

4.6.8.3. Demonstrate the use of the different types of accounts available from financial institutions, e.g., checking or savings accounts. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.3.

4.6.8.4. Students will identify sources of earned and unearned income, e.g., wages or investments. 18
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.4.

4.6.8.5. Define and compare saving and investing. 8
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.5.

4.6.8.6. Evaluate sources of investment information, and describe how to buy and sell investments. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.6.

4.6.8.7. Discuss the importance of taking responsibility for personal financial decisions. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.7.

4.6.8.8. Design a plan for earning, spending, saving, and investing. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.6.8.8.

NH.5. Geography: The real crux of geography is understanding our physical Earth and human-environment interaction: knowing why people settle in an area, how they make their living and the resources they use, why they dress or speak the way they do, and what they do for entertainment. A geographically informed person can draw connections between locations of the Earth, recognize complex regional patterns, and appreciate the influence of place on human development.

5.1. The World in Spatial Terms: Students will demonstrate the ability to use maps, mental maps, globes, and other graphic tools and technologies to acquire, process, report, and analyze geographic information.

5.1.8.1. Compare relative advantages and disadvantages of using maps, globes, aerial and other photographs, satellite-produced images, and models to solve geographic problems, e.g., the Mercator projections versus Robinson projections. 31
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.1.8.1.

5.2. Places and Regions: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.

5.2.8.1. Identify the types of regions, e.g., formal, functional, or vernacular regions of which the local community is a part. 15
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.2.8.1.

5.2.8.2. Illustrate the connections among regions, e.g., world trade or regional alliances. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.2.8.2.

5.2.8.3. Describe how culture, technology, and experience affect perception of places and regions, e.g., images created by mass media or travel. 14
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.2.8.3.

5.3. Physical Systems: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems.

5.3.8.1. Recognize how physical processes influence the formation and distribution of resources, e.g., the potential for hydroelectric power or coal deposits. 8
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.3.8.1.

5.4. Human Systems: Students will demonstrate an understanding of human migration; the complexity of cultural mosaics; economic interdependence; human settlement patterns; and the forces of cooperation and conflict among peoples.

5.4.8.1. Describe ways in which physical and human regional systems are interconnected, e.g., canal systems or 'hub-and-spoke' airline operations. 65
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.4.8.1.

5.4.8.2. Explain how cooperation and conflict among people contribute to political divisions of Earth's surface, e.g., trade agreements, military pacts, or boundary disputes. 10
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.4.8.2.

NH.6. New Hampshire and United States History: The study of New Hampshire and United States History is important in helping citizens understand and appreciate the legacy of our republic, and to develop the empathy and analytical skills needed to participate intelligently and responsibly in our ongoing democratic experiment. Historical study exposes students to the enduring themes and issues of our past and emboldens them to courageously and compassionately meet the contemporary challenges they will face as individuals in a state, a country and an interdependent world. Ultimately, the study of history will help students plan and implement responsible actions that support and enhance our collective values.

6.1. Political Foundations and Development: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the major ideas, issues and events pertaining to the history of governance in our state and nation.

6.1.8.1. Examine how suffrage expanded to various groups of citizens, e.g., women African-Americans. 11
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.8.1.

6.1.8.2. Describe the role New Hampshire voters have played in our nation's presidential primaries and elections. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.8.2.

6.1.8.3. Examine how religion has influenced the political life of the nation, e.g., the Know Nothing Party, the temperance movement, or the First Great Awakening. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.8.3.

6.1.8.4. Analyze the tension between states' rights and national authority, e.g., the nullification crisis of 1832 or school integration of the 1960's. 13
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.8.4.

6.2. Contacts, Exchanges & International Relations: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events, actions and policies of our nation in relation to other peoples and governments over time.

6.2.8.1. Explain major attempts to force European powers to recognize and respect the sovereignty of the United States as a new nation, e.g., the Jay Treaty or the War of 1812. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.2.8.1.

6.2.8.2. Explain major United States efforts to remove European influence from the Western Hemisphere, e.g., the Monroe Doctrine or the Cuban Missile Crisis. 26
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.2.8.2.

6.2.8.3. Compare and contrast the rationales for entering into war with other nations, e.g., the American Revolution or the Korean Conflict. 27
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.2.8.3.

6.2.8.4. Analyze the extent to which democratic ideals, economic motives and empire building have influenced United States foreign policy in events and policies, e.g., the Louisiana Purchase or the Marshall Plan. 60
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.2.8.4.

6.2.8.5. Investigate the impact of foreign policy on domestic affairs as illustrated in historical events, e.g., the XYZ Affair or the Vietnam War. 24
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.2.8.5.

6.3. World Views and Value systems and their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions: Students will demonstrate an understanding of conceptions of reality, ideals, guidelines of behavior and forms of expression.

6.3.8.1. Explain how art, music and literature often reflect and/or influence major ideas, values and conflicts of particular time periods, e.g., manifest destiny, protest movements, or freedom of expression. 49
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.3.8.1.

6.4. Economic Systems & Technology: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

6.4.8.1. Explore how economic interactions have occurred on an increasingly global scale, e.g., the Triangular Trade or multinational corporations. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.4.8.1.

6.4.8.2. Examine the causes of conflict between management and labor, e.g., the Pullman Strike or the Air Traffic Controllers Strike of 1981. 18
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.4.8.2.

6.5. Social/Cultural: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interaction of various social groups, including their values, beliefs and practices, over time.

6.5.8.1. Analyze how societal changes have influenced the family, e.g., child labor or elderly care. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.5.8.1.

NH.7. World History and Contemporary Issues: The study of World History and Contemporary Issues is important in helping citizens understand and appreciate the contemporary challenges they will face as individuals in an interdependent, increasingly connected world. Knowledge of past achievements and failures of different peoples and nations provides citizens of the 21st century with a broader context within which to address the many issues facing our nation and the world. World History fosters an appreciation of the roots of our nation's values and the values and perspectives of other peoples. It illustrates how humans have expressed themselves in different surroundings and at different times, revealing the many commonalties and differences shared by the world's peoples past and present.

7.1. Political Foundations and Developments: Students will demonstrate an understanding of major events, ideas and issues pertaining to the history of governance.

7.1.8.1. Explore how leaders have attempted to achieve political legitimacy using methods and rationales, e.g., the Divine Right of Kings, military power, or popular elections. 22
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.1.8.1.

7.1.8.2. Analyze the influence of religious groups on political systems, e.g., Confucianism in China, Catholicism in Europe, or Wahabism in the Middle East. 17
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.1.8.2.

7.1.8.3. Explore the use and abuse of power that results in mass murder and genocide, e.g., Carthage by Rome, the conquest of Aztecs, or the Holocaust. 25
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.1.8.3.

7.2. Contacts, Exchanges & International Relations: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the interactions of peoples and governments over time.

7.2.8.1. Analyze the demographic impact of diseases and their treatment, e.g., the bubonic plague, small pox in the Western Hemisphere, or AIDS. 45
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.2.8.1.

7.3. World Views and Value systems and their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions: Students will demonstrate their understanding of conceptions of reality, ideals, guidelines of behavior and their forms of expression.

7.3.8.1. Demonstrate an understanding of how art, music and literature often influence or reflect major ideas, values and conflicts of a particular time. 11
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.3.8.1.

7.3.8.2. Analyze how architecture has symbolized the values of various societies, e.g., Greco-Roman, Tudor English, or Scandinavian. 8
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.3.8.2.

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