New Hampshire State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 4

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NH.3. Civics and Governments: The goal of Civics is to educate students to understand the purpose, structure, and functions of government; the political process; the rule of law; and world affairs. Civics builds on a foundation of history, geography, and economics to teach students to become responsible, knowledgeable citizens, committed to participation in public affairs.

3.1. The Nature and Purpose of Government: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of governments, and the fundamental ideals of government of the United States.

3.1.4.1. Explain the ideal of the United States system of government, e.g., equal rights or tolerance for others. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.1.4.1.

3.1.4.2. Analyze how government addresses social, political, and geographic issues. e.g., local land use decisions or decisions involving human rights. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.1.4.2.

3.2. Structure and Function of United States and New Hampshire Government: Students will demonstrate an understanding of major provisions of the United States and New Hampshire Constitutions, and the organization and operation of government at all levels including the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

3.2.4.1. Identify the individual functions of the three branches of government and the organization of New Hampshire state government. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.2.4.1.

3.2.4.2. Explain how laws and/or policies are made at local and state levels. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.2.4.2.

3.3. The World and the United States' Place In It: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries, and the role of the United States in world affairs.

3.3.4.1. Explain that the world is divided into different countries with their own governments and that all governments are not the same. 16
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.3.4.1.

3.4. Rights and Responsibilities: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government through the political process and citizen involvement.

3.4.4.1. Describe the rights of citizens as outlined by the Constitutions of New Hampshire and the United States. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 3.4.4.1.

NH.4. Economics: Economics is the study of the allocation and utilization of limited resources to meet society's unlimited needs and wants, including how goods and services are produced and distributed. Through economics, students examine the relationship between costs and benefits. They develop an understanding of basic economic concepts; economics in history; how economics affects and is affected by the individual; cycles in the economy; financial institutions and government; and international economics and trade. The goal of economic education is to prepare students to make effective decisions as consumers, producers, savers, investors, and as citizens.

4.1. Economics and the Individual: Students will learn about their role in a free market, how decisions that they make affect the economy, and how changes in the economy can affect them.

4.1.4.1. Identify the factors of production and explain how businesses use these to produce goods and services. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.1.4.1.

4.1.4.2. Describe what markets are and define individual's roles as consumers and producers in a market economy using circular flow models. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.1.4.2.

4.1.4.3. Explain how decisions by consumers and producers affect and are affected by the economy. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.1.4.3.

4.1.4.4. Describe why most jobs today require greater specialization and result in greater productivity. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.1.4.4.

4.2. Basic Economic Concepts: Students will learn about the pillars of a free market economy and the market mechanism.

4.2.4.1. Explain why needs and wants are unlimited while resources are limited. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.4.1.

4.2.4.2. Explain why scarcity requires individuals, households, businesses and governments to make economic choices and how economic choices always involve an opportunity cost. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.4.2.

4.2.4.3. Describe different ways individuals, households, businesses and governments make economic decisions, e.g., developing alternative choices or budgets. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.4.3.

4.2.4.4. Define supply and demand and describe factors that can cause a change in supply and demand. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.4.4.

4.2.4.5. Explain how prices of goods and services are set in the United States and describe different factors that affect price. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.2.4.5.

4.3. Cycles in the Economy: Students will be able to explain the business cycle and trends in economic activity over time.

4.3.4.1. Illustrate cycles of economic growth and decline, e.g., New Hampshire manufacturing or agriculture. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.3.4.1.

4.3.4.2. Describe how changes in the business cycle can impact people's lives. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.3.4.2.

4.4. Financial Institutions and the Government: Students will understand how financial institutions and the government work together to stabilize our economy, and how changes in them affect the individual.

4.4.4.1. Identify the characteristics of money. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.4.4.1.

4.4.4.2. Describe basic services banks or other financial institutions provide to consumers, savers, borrowers, and businesses. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.4.4.2.

4.5. International Economics and Trade: Students will recognize the importance of international trade and how economies are affected by it.

4.5.4.1. Describe that countries have different kinds of resources. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.4.1.

4.5.4.2. Explain why some countries' resources are in greater demand than others, e.g., colonial New Hampshire's mast trees or petroleum. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.4.2.

4.5.4.3. Explain that trade between countries involves imports and exports and the reasons why countries trade. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 4.5.4.3.

NH.5. Geography: The real crux of geography is understanding our physical Earth and human-environment interaction: knowing why people settle in an area, how they make their living and the resources they use, why they dress or speak the way they do, and what they do for entertainment. A geographically informed person can draw connections between locations of the Earth, recognize complex regional patterns, and appreciate the influence of place on human development.

5.1. The World in Spatial Terms: Students will demonstrate the ability to use maps, mental maps, globes, and other graphic tools and technologies to acquire, process, report, and analyze geographic information.

5.1.4.1. Identify and describe the characteristics and purposes of geographic tools: maps, globes, graphs, diagrams, photographs, satellite-produced images, and other technologies. 18
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.1.4.1.

5.1.4.2. Display spatial information on maps and other geographic representations, e.g., home-to-school routes or settings in appropriate children's literature. 22
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.1.4.2.

5.1.4.3. Locate major physical and human features in the United States and on Earth, e.g., mountain ranges, principal parallels or meridians. 17
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.1.4.3.

5.1.4.4. Illustrate that places and features are distributed spatially across Earth's surface, e.g., community grid maps or population density maps. 13
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.1.4.4.

5.1.4.5. Recognize the causes and consequences of spatial interaction on Earth's surface, e.g., the origin of consumer goods or transportation routes. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.1.4.5.

5.2. Places and Regions: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.

5.2.4.1. Describe the physical and human characteristics of places, e.g., land forms or where people live. human processes together shape places, e.g., the relationship between elevation and population density in a region or the characteristics of regions along the same latitude.

5.2.4.3. Generalize the concept of region as an area of Earth's surface with unifying geographic characteristics, e.g., neighborhoods or climate regions. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.2.4.3.

5.2.4.4. Illustrate the ways in which regions change, e.g., changes in local neighborhoods or changes to the United States through westward expansion. 10
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.2.4.4.

5.2.4.5. Compare and contrast the ways in which different people perceive places, e.g., drawings and sketch maps of familiar places or examples from children's literature. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.2.4.5.

5.3. Physical Systems: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems.

5.3.4.1. Illustrate the components of Earth's physical systems, e.g., a climate or a model of the water cycle. 10
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.3.4.1.

5.3.4.2. Demonstrate how physical processes shape features of Earth's surface, e.g., weather or tectonic forces. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.3.4.2.

5.3.4.3. Describe how the Earth-Sun relationship affects conditions on Earth, e.g., seasons at different locations on Earth, length of daylight. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.3.4.3.

5.3.4.4. Recognize the components and distribution of ecosystems, e.g., the location of certain plants and animals or the food chain. 8
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.3.4.4.

5.3.4.5. Investigate how humans interact with ecosystems, e.g., forest management or impacting wetlands. 43
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.3.4.5.

5.4. Human Systems: Students will demonstrate an understanding of human migration; the complexity of cultural mosaics; economic interdependence; human settlement patterns; and the forces of cooperation and conflict among peoples.

5.4.4.1. Recognize the distribution of a population and its underlying causes, e.g., rural, suburban or urban. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.4.4.1.

5.4.4.2. Describe the types and historical patterns of human migration, e.g., chain migration or slave trade. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.4.4.2.

5.4.4.3. Evaluate the effects of migration on the characteristics of places, e.g., cultural awareness or food choices. 20
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.4.4.3.

5.4.4.4. Analyze the spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world, e.g., urbanization along rivers or nomadic movement patterns. 11
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.4.4.4.

5.5. Environment and Society: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions between Earth's physical and human systems.

5.5.4.1. Illustrate how people modify the physical environment, e.g., irrigation projects or clearing land for human use. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.5.4.1.

5.5.4.2. Examine the ways in which the physical environment provides opportunities or limitations, e.g., natural resources that first attracted settlers or natural hazards that threaten life. 12
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.5.4.2.

5.5.4.3. Examine the effects of the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources on human systems, e.g., climate change or fluctuating oil prices. 15
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.5.4.3.

5.5.4.4. Describe the role of natural resources in daily life, e.g., food, clothing, or shelter. 1
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.5.4.4.

5.5.4.5. Compare how people in different regions use the same resource, e.g., water or wood. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 5.5.4.5.

NH.6. New Hampshire and United States History: The study of New Hampshire and United States History is important in helping citizens understand and appreciate the legacy of our republic, and to develop the empathy and analytical skills needed to participate intelligently and responsibly in our ongoing democratic experiment. Historical study exposes students to the enduring themes and issues of our past and emboldens them to courageously and compassionately meet the contemporary challenges they will face as individuals in a state, a country and an interdependent world. Ultimately, the study of history will help students plan and implement responsible actions that support and enhance our collective values.

6.1. Political Foundations and Development: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the major ideas, issues and events pertaining to the history of governance in our state and nation.

6.1.4.1. Explore biographies of key political figures who helped shape our community, state, and country, e.g., Franklin Pierce or Sandra Day O'Connor. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.4.1.

6.1.4.2. Trace the political development of New Hampshire governance, e.g., self-government in early settlements or the development of current forms of local government. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.4.2.

6.1.4.3. Describe the significance of national and New Hampshire celebrations, monuments, symbols and documents, e.g., Veteran's Day, the Statue of Liberty, Old Man of the Mountain, and the preamble to the New Hampshire Constitution. 21
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.1.4.3.

6.2. Contacts, Exchanges & International Relations: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events, actions and policies of our nation in relation to other peoples and governments over time.

6.2.4.1. Describe the interconnectedness of the world developed using examples, e.g., the contact between Native Americans and European settlers or the location of family members serving in foreign countries. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.2.4.1.

6.3. World Views and Value systems and their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions: Students will demonstrate an understanding of conceptions of reality, ideals, guidelines of behavior and forms of expression.

6.3.4.1. Explore how individuals' ideals have profoundly affected life in the United States, e.g., Martin Luther King Jr.'s belief in nonviolence or John Stark's statement 'Live Free or Die'. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.3.4.1.

6.3.4.2. Explore how art, music and literature often reflect and/or influence major ideas, values and conflicts of particular time periods, e.g., colonial life or industrialization in New Hampshire. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.3.4.2.

6.3.4.3. Explore how groups have enhanced the art, music and literature of our nation, e.g., Latinos or Franco Americans. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.3.4.3.

6.4. Economic Systems & Technology: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

6.4.4.1. Explore major developments and changes in economic productivity, e.g., adoption of Native American crops or use of mass production. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.4.4.1.

6.4.4.2. Explore the impact of important technological inventions, e.g., new forms of transportation or housing. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.4.4.2.

6.4.4.3. Investigate the evolution of the United States economy, e.g., the transition from farms to factories or the trend from small local stores to shopping malls. 4
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.4.4.3.

6.5. Social/Cultural: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interaction of various social groups, including their values, beliefs and practices, over time.

6.5.4.1. Explain the unique contributions of different ethnic and religious groups to New Hampshire history and culture, e.g., the Shakers or the French Canadians. 2
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.5.4.1.

6.5.4.2. Describe the impact of major national and state events on everyday life, e.g., the American Revolution or the terrorist attacks on 9.11.2001. 6
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.5.4.2.

6.5.4.3. Trace the changes in the roles and lives of women and children and their impact on society, e.g., the family or the workplace. 7
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.5.4.3.

6.5.4.4. Explore attitudes towards diversity, e.g., segregation or inclusion. 3
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 6.5.4.4.

6.5.4.5. Describe the reasons why various groups have come to the United States, e.g., enslavement or economic opportunity.

NH.7. World History and Contemporary Issues: The study of World History and Contemporary Issues is important in helping citizens understand and appreciate the contemporary challenges they will face as individuals in an interdependent, increasingly connected world. Knowledge of past achievements and failures of different peoples and nations provides citizens of the 21st century with a broader context within which to address the many issues facing our nation and the world. World History fosters an appreciation of the roots of our nation's values and the values and perspectives of other peoples. It illustrates how humans have expressed themselves in different surroundings and at different times, revealing the many commonalties and differences shared by the world's peoples past and present.

7.1. Political Foundations and Developments: Students will demonstrate an understanding of major events, ideas and issues pertaining to the history of governance.

7.1.4.1. Explain that people of different countries create social and political systems, e.g., a family or a government. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.1.4.1.

7.2. Contacts, Exchanges & International Relations: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the interactions of peoples and governments over time.

7.2.4.1. Explain how events or global issues affect interactions between countries, e.g., the Olympics or the war on terrorism. 5
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.2.4.1.

7.3. World Views and Value systems and their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions: Students will demonstrate their understanding of conceptions of reality, ideals, guidelines of behavior and their forms of expression.

7.3.4.1. Describe ways that societies around the world express themselves artistically through forms, e.g., architecture or folk tales. 16
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.3.4.1.

7.4. Economic Systems & Technology: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

7.4.4.1. Explore how improvements in agriculture enhance human survival using examples, e.g., the exchange between Native Americans and early colonists or feeding the hungry of the world today. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.4.4.1.

7.5. Social/Cultural: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the diversity of values, beliefs, and practices of individuals and groups over time.

7.5.4.1. Describe different ways that societies around the world express their values and beliefs through practices, e.g., festivals or dress. 9
Suggested Titles for New Hampshire Social Studies State Standard 7.5.4.1.

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