# Massachusetts State Standards for Mathematics: Grade 8 Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

MA.8.N. Number Sense and Operations: Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing.

8.N.1. Compare, order, estimate, and translate among integers, fractions and mixed numbers (i.e., rational numbers), decimals, and percents.

8.N.2. Define, compare, order, and apply frequently used irrational numbers.

8.N.3. Use ratios and proportions in the solution of problems, in particular, problems involving unit rates, scale factors, and rate of change.

8.N.4. Represent numbers in scientific notation, and use them in calculations and problem situations.

8.N.5. Apply number theory concepts, including prime factorization and relatively prime numbers, to the solution of problems.

8.N.6. Demonstrate an understanding of absolute value, e.g., |-3| = |3| = 3.

8.N.7. Apply the rules of powers and roots to the solution of problems. Extend the order of operations to include positive integer exponents and square roots.

8.N.8. Demonstrate an understanding of the properties of arithmetic operations on rational numbers. Use the associative, commutative, and distributive properties; properties of the identity and inverse elements (e.g., -7 + 7 = 0; 3/4 X 4/3 = 1); and the notion of closure of a subset of the rational numbers under an operation (e.g., the set of odd integers is closed under multiplication but not under addition).

8.N.9. Use the inverse relationships of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, and squaring and finding square roots to simplify computations and solve problems, e.g. multiplying by 1/2 or 0.5 is the same as dividing by 2.

8.N.10. Estimate and compute with fractions (including simplification of fractions), integers, decimals, and percents (including those greater than 100 and less than 1).

8.N.11. Determine when an estimate rather than an exact answer is appropriate and apply in problem situations.

8.N.12. Select and use appropriate operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and positive integer exponents - to solve problems with rational numbers (including negatives).

MA.8.P. Patterns, Relations, and Algebra: Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing.

8.P.1. Extend, represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and, when possible, symbolic expressions. Include arithmetic and geometric progressions, e.g., compounding.

8.P.2. Evaluate simple algebraic expressions for given variable values, e.g., 3a squared - b for a = 3 and b = 7.

8.P.3. Demonstrate an understanding of the identity (-x)(-y) = xy. Use this identity to simplify algebraic expressions, e.g., (-2)(-x+2) = 2x - 4.

8.P.4. Create and use symbolic expressions and relate them to verbal, tabular, and graphical representations.

8.P.5. Identify the slope of a line as a measure of its steepness and as a constant rate of change from its table of values, equation, or graph. Apply the concept of slope to the solution of problems.

8.P.6. Identify the roles of variables within an equation, e.g., y = mx + b, expressing y as a function of x with parameters m and b.

8.P.7. Set up and solve linear equations and inequalities with one or two variables, using algebraic methods, models, and/or graphs.

8.P.8. Explain and analyze - both quantitatively and qualitatively, using pictures, graphs, charts, or equations - how a change in one variable results in a change in another variable in functional relationships.

8.P.9. Use linear equations to model and analyze problems involving proportional relationships. Use technology as appropriate.

8.P.10. Use tables and graphs to represent and compare linear growth patterns. In particular, compare rates of change and x- and y-intercepts of different linear patterns.

MA.8.G. Geometry: Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing.

8.G.1. Analyze, apply, and explain the relationship between the number of sides and the sums of the interior and exterior angle measures of polygons.

8.G.2. Classify figures in terms of congruence and similarity, and apply these relationships to the solution of problems.

8.G.3. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships of angles formed by intersecting lines, including parallel lines cut by a transversal.

8.G.4. Demonstrate an understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem. Apply the theorem to the solution of problems.

8.G.5. Use a straightedge, compass, or other tools to formulate and test conjectures, and to draw geometric figures.

8.G.6. Predict the results of transformations on unmarked or coordinate planes and draw the transformed figure, e.g., predict how tessellations transform under translations, reflections, and rotations.

8.G.7. Identify three-dimensional figures (e.g., prisms, pyramids) by their physical appearance, distinguishing attributes, and spatial relationships such as parallel faces.

8.G.8. Recognize and draw two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects, e.g., nets, projections, and perspective drawings.

MA.8.M. Measurement: Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing.

8.M.1. Select, convert (within the same system of measurement), and use appropriate units of measurement or scale.

8.M.2. Given the formulas, convert from one system of measurement to another. Use technology as appropriate.

8.M.3. Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and apply formulas and procedures for determining measures, including those of area and perimeter/ circumference of parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles. Given the formulas, determine the surface area and volume of rectangular prisms, cylinders, and spheres. Use technology as appropriate.

8.M.4. Use ratio and proportion (including scale factors) in the solution of problems, including problems involving similar plane figures and indirect measurement.

8.M.5. Use models, graphs, and formulas to solve simple problems involving rates, e.g., velocity and density.

MA.8.D. Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability: Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing.

8.D.1. Describe the characteristics and limitations of a data sample. Identify different ways of selecting a sample, e.g., convenience sampling, responses to a survey, random sampling.

8.D.2. Select, create, interpret, and utilize various tabular and graphical representations of data, e.g., circle graphs, Venn diagrams, scatter plots, stem-and-leaf plots, box-and- whisker plots, histograms, tables, and charts. Differentiate between continuous and discrete data and ways to represent them.

8.D.3. Find, describe, and interpret appropriate measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and spread (range) that represent a set of data. Use these notions to compare different sets of data.

8.D.4. Use tree diagrams, tables, organized lists, basic combinatorics ('fundamental counting principle'), and area models to compute probabilities for simple compound events, e.g., multiple coin tosses or rolls of dice.

MA.CC.8.NS. The Number System

8.NS.1. Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.

8.NS.2. Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., pi^2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of square root of 2 show that the square root of 2 is between 1and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.

MA.CC.8.EE. Expressions and Equations

8.EE.1. Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 * 3^-5 = 3^-3 = 1/3^3 = 1/27.

8.EE.2. Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that the square root of 2 is irrational.

8.EE.3. Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

8.EE.4. Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

8.EE.5. Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

8.EE.6. Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

8.EE.7. Solve linear equations in one variable.

8.EE.7.a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

8.EE.7.b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

8.EE.8. Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

8.EE.8.a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

8.EE.8.b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

8.EE.8.c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

MA.CC.8.F. Functions

8.F.1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.

8.F.2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

8.F.3. Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

8.F.4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

8.F.5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

MA.CC.8.G. Geometry

8.G.1.a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.

8.G.1.b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.

8.G.1.c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

8.G.9. Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

MA.CC.8.SP. Statistics and Probability

8.SP.1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

8.SP.2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

8.SP.3. Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.

8.SP.4. Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?

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