Massachusetts State Standards for Arts Education: Grade 6

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MA.1. Dance: Movement Elements and Dance Skills: Students will identify and demonstrate movement elements and dance skills.

1.10. Demonstrate understanding of alignment, articulation of body parts, initiation of movement, weight shift and balance, elevation and landing, and fall and recovery.

1.11. Demonstrate ability to move to changing rhythms, melodies, and non-musical sounds.

1.12. Explore increasingly complex combinations of locomotor and non-locomotor movements that emphasize the elements of space, time, and force.

1.13. Demonstrate increasing accuracy in memorizing and reproducing more complex movement phrases from a variety of traditional and contemporary dances.

1.14. Compare and contrast the movement styles of classical, theatrical, or traditional dance (such as ballet, modern, jazz, folk, and social dances) using appropriate dance vocabulary.

1.15. Continue to develop a positive body image.

MA.2. Dance: Choreography: Students will create movement compositions based on choreographic principles, processes, and forms.

2.6. Use improvisation to generate movement for choreography.

2.7. Create sequences and simple dances that demonstrate principles of unison, contrast, repetition, climax, abstraction, reordering, and chance.

2.8. Demonstrate compositional forms in short choreographed phrases, using AB, ABA, theme-variations, canon, rondos, story-telling, and narration.

2.9. Use scientific and/or mathematical concepts to create movement phrases.

2.10. Demonstrate the following partner skills in creating contrasting and complementary shapes: taking and supporting weight, counter-tension, and counterbalance.

2.11. Describe and analyze, orally and in writing, the choreographic structure of variety of dances, using appropriate dance vocabulary.

2.12. Record dances and choreography using pictorial symbols or other forms of notation.

MA.3. Dance: Dance as Expression: Students will demonstrate an understanding of dance as a way to express and communicate meaning.

3.5. Demonstrate and articulate the difference between pantomime and gesture in dance; use gesture as a tool to enhance the expressive nature of movement.

3.6. Observe and explain how different accompaniment (music, abstract sounds, spoken text, lighting, and costuming) can affect and /or contribute to the meaning of a dance.

3.7. Perform a movement piece that communicates a topic of personal, social, or artistic significance and explain the movement choices.

3.8. Perform dances confidently, communicating the intention of the choreographer and the style of the dance.

MA.4. Dance: Performance in Dance: Students will rehearse and stage dance works.

4.4. Improvise dances that range from free-form to structured studies; realize the potential of improvisation as a tool for the enrichment of individual and group expression.

4.5. Create or learn and perform a dance for invited guests or peers based on one of the following: a ritual from another culture; a traditional dance; work with a partner, group, or single choreographer. Identify and explain the circumstances and settings in which the dance would be performed.

4.6. Demonstrate increased ability to work effectively alone, and to cooperate with a partner or in an ensemble.

4.7. Understand the purpose of the rehearsal process in refining and revising work leading to a finished performance.

MA.5. Dance: Critical Response: Students will describe and analyze their own dances and the dances of others using appropriate dance vocabulary. When appropriate, students will connect their analysis to interpretation and evaluation.

5.5. Use appropriate dance terminology to describe and analyze their own work.

5.6. Identify and discuss artistic challenges and successful outcomes encountered during the creative and rehearsal processes. Reflect upon the value of different solutions.

5.7. Identify possible criteria for evaluating dance, such as skill of performers, originality of movement, visual and/or emotional impact, variety, contrast, and appropriateness of accompaniment.

5.8. Understand the role of an audience for dance; discuss opinions about dances in a supportive and constructive way.

MA.1. Music: Singing: Students will sing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.

1.6. Sing independently with increased accuracy, expanded breath control, and extended vocal range.

1.7. Sing with expression and technical accuracy a repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6 (level 3 for choral ensemble), including some songs performed by memory.

1.8. Sing music representing diverse genres and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed, and using a variety of languages.

1.9. Sing music written in two and three parts (up to four parts in choral ensemble), with and without accompaniment.

MA.2. Music: Reading and Notation: Students will read music written in standard notation.

2.5. Read whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/8, 9/8, and alla breve meter signatures.

2.6. Read and sing at sight simple melodies and intervals in both the treble and bass clefs.

2.7. Identify, define, and use standard notation symbols for pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, articulation, and expression.

2.8. Use standard notation to record their own musical ideas and those of others.

2.9. In a choral/instrumental ensemble or class: sight-read, accurately and expressively, music with a difficulty level of 2 on a scale of 1 to 6.

MA.3. Music: Playing Instruments: Students will play instruments, alone and with others, to perform a varied repertoire of music.

3.7. Perform on at least one instrument accurately and independently, alone and in small and large ensembles, with appropriate posture, playing position, and technique.

3.8. Perform with expression and technical accuracy on at least one string, wind, percussion, or classroom instrument, a repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6 (level 3 for instrumental ensemble).

3.9. Perform music representing diverse historical periods, genres, and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed.

3.10. Play by ear simple melodies on a melodic instrument and simple accompaniments on a harmonic instrument.

MA.4. Music: Improvisation and Composition: Students will improvise, compose, and arrange music.

4.6. Improvise and compose simple harmonic accompaniments.

4.7. Improvise melodic embellishments and simple rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and melodies in major keys.

4.8. Improvise short melodies, unaccompanied and over given rhythmic accompaniments, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality.

4.9. Compose and arrange short pieces for voices or instruments within teacher-specified guidelines, using the elements of music to achieve unity and variety, tension and release, and balance.

4.10. Use a variety of traditional and nontraditional sound sources and electronic media when composing and arranging.

MA.5. Music: Critical Response: Students will describe and analyze their own music and the music of others using appropriate music vocabulary. When appropriate, students will connect their analysis to interpretation and evaluation.

5.7. Analyze the uses of elements in aural examples representing diverse genres and cultures.

5.8. Describe specific music occurrences in a given aural example, using appropriate terminology.

5.9. Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of meter, rhythm, tonality, intervals, chords, and harmonic progressions in an analysis of music.

5.10. Interpret more complex music through movement.

5.11. Listen to formal and informal performances with attention, showing understanding of the protocols of audience behavior appropriate to the style of the performance.

MA.1. Theatre: Acting: Students will develop acting skills to portray characters who interact in improvised and scripted scenes.

1.7. Create and sustain a believable character throughout a scripted or improvised scene.

1.8. Make and justify choices on the selection and use of properties and costumes to support character dimensions.

1.9. Use physical acting skills such as body alignment, control of isolated body parts, and rhythms to develop characterizations that suggest artistic choices.

1.10. Use vocal acting skills such as breath control, diction, projection, inflection, rhythm, and pace to develop characterizations that suggest artistic choices.

1.11. Motivate character behavior by using recall of emotional experience as well as observation of the external world.

1.12. Describe and analyze, in written and oral form, characters' wants, needs, objectives, and personality characteristics.

1.13. In rehearsal and performance situations, perform as a productive and responsible member of an acting ensemble (i.e., demonstrate personal responsibility and commitment to a collaborative process).

MA.2. Theatre: Reading and Writing Scripts: Students will read, analyze, and write dramatic material.

2.6. Identify literary characteristics of the dramatic script, including elements of dramatic structure, conventions, and format used in writing material for the stage; identify forms such as comedy and tragedy.

2.7. Read plays and stories from a variety of cultures and historical periods and identify the characters, setting, plot, theme, and conflict.

2.8. Improvise characters, dialogue, and actions that focus on the development and resolution of dramatic conflicts.

2.9. Drawing on personal experience or research, write a monologue for an invented, literary, or historical character.

2.10. Using the correct form and structure, write a series of dramatic scenes.

MA.3. Theatre: Directing: Students will rehearse and stage dramatic works.

3.2. Read plays from a variety of cultures and historical periods, describe their themes, interpret their characters' intentions and motivations, and determine their staging requirements.

3.3. Recognize and describe the distinct roles and responsibilities of the director, actors, stage manager, set and costume designers, and others involved in presenting a theatrical performance.

3.4. Identify and use appropriate vocabulary to describe kinds of stage spaces (e.g., proscenium, thrust, arena), stage directions, areas of the stage (e.g., upstage, downstage, stage right, stage left) and basic blocking techniques.

3.5. Demonstrate an understanding of the purpose of the rehearsal process as a means of refining and revising work leading to a finished performance.

3.6. Rehearse and perform a variety of dramatic works for peers or invited audiences.

MA.4. Theatre: Technical Theatre: Students will demonstrate skills in using the basic tools, media, and techniques involved in theatrical production.

4.3. Recognize and understand the roles and responsibilities of various technical personnel in creating and producing a theatrical performance.

4.4. Read and analyze a play for its technical requirements, identifying points in the script that require the addition of a technical element.

4.5. As a member of a production crew, select and create elements of scenery, properties, lighting, and sound to signify environments, and costumes and makeup to suggest character.

4.6. Draw renderings, floor plans, and/or build models of sets for a dramatic work and explain choices in using visual elements (line, shape/form, texture, color, space), and visual principles (unity, variety, harmony, balance, rhythm).

4.7. Create a sound environment, composed, live, or recorded, for a dramatic work and explain how the aural elements meet the requirements of and enhance the overall effect of the text.

4.8. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships among scenery, properties, lighting, sound, costumes, and make-up in creating a unified theatrical effect for a dramatic work.

4.9. Describe characteristics of theatre technology and equipment based on a tour of a high school or professional theatre.

4.10. Show appropriate respect for the safety and maintenance of the work space, tools, and equipment.

MA.5. Theatre: Critical Response: Students will describe and analyze their own theatrical work and the work of others using appropriate theatre vocabulary. When appropriate, students will connect their analysis to interpretation and evaluation.

5.5. Continue to develop and refine audience behavior skills when attending informal and formal live performances.

5.7. Articulate and justify possible criteria for critiquing classroom dramatizations and dramatic performances.

5.8. Identify and discuss artistic challenges and successful outcomes encountered during the creative and rehearsal process.

5.9. Use appropriate theatre terminology to describe and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of their own or the group's work.

5.10. Give, accept, and use constructive criticism that identifies the specific steps needed to revise and refine their own or the group's work.

5.11. Use a variety of assessment tools such as journals, rehearsal notes, video/audio tapes, rubrics, self, peer, and teacher evaluations to revise and refine their own or the group's work.

MA.1. Visual Arts: Methods, Materials, and Techniques: Students will demonstrate knowledge of the methods, materials, and techniques unique to the visual arts.

1.5. Expand the repertoire of 2D and 3D art processes, techniques, and materials with a focus on the range of effects possible within each medium, such as: 2D - transparent and opaque media, wet, dry, stippled, blended, wash effects; relief printmaking effects; 3D - mobile and stabile forms, carved, molded, and constructed forms.

1.6. Create artwork that demonstrates an awareness of the range and purpose of tools such as pens, brushes, markers, cameras, tools and equipment for printmaking and sculpture, and computers.

1.7. Use the appropriate vocabulary related to the methods, materials, and techniques students have learned and used in grades PreK-8.

1.8. Maintain the workspace, materials, and tools responsibly and safely.

MA.2. Visual Arts: Elements and Principles of Design: Students will demonstrate knowledge of the elements and principles of design.

2.7. For color, use and be able to identify hues, values, intermediate shades, tints, tones, complementary, analogous, and mono-chromatic colors. Demonstrate awareness of color by painting objective studies from life and free-form abstractions that employ relative properties of color.

2.8. For line, use and be able to identify various types of line, for example in contour drawings, calligraphy, freehand studies from observation, memory, and imagination, and schematic studies.

2.9. For texture, use and be able to differentiate between surface texture and the illusion of texture (visual texture).

2.10. For shape, form, and pattern, use and be able to identify an expanding and increasingly sophisticated array of shapes and forms, such as organic, geometric, positive and negative, or varieties of symmetry. Create complex patterns, for example, reversed shapes and tessellation.

2.11. For space and composition, create unified 2D and 3D compositions that demonstrate an understanding of balance, repetition, rhythm, scale, proportion, unity, harmony, and emphasis. Create 2D compositions that give the illusion of 3D space and volume.

MA.3. Visual Arts: Observation, Abstraction, Invention, and Expression: Students will demonstrate their powers of observation, abstraction, invention, and expression in a variety of media, materials, and techniques.

3.4. Create 2D and 3D representational artwork from direct observation in order to develop skills of perception, discrimination, physical coordination, and memory of detail.

3.5. Create symbolic artwork by substituting symbols for objects, relationships, or ideas.

3.6. Create artwork that employs the use of free form symbolic imagery that demonstrates personal invention, and/or conveys ideas and emotions.

3.7. Create artwork that shows knowledge of the ways in which architects, craftsmen, and designers develop abstract symbols by simplifying elements of the environment.

MA.4. Visual Arts: Drafting, Revising, and Exhibiting: Students will demonstrate knowledge of the processes of creating and exhibiting their own artwork: drafts, critique, self-assessment, refinement, and exhibit preparation.

4.4. Produce work that shows an understanding of the concept of craftsmanship.

4.5. Demonstrate the ability to describe preliminary concepts verbally; to visualize concepts in clear schematic layouts; and to organize and complete projects.

4.6. Demonstrate the ability to articulate criteria for artistic work, describe personal style, assess and reflect on work orally and in writing, and to revise work based on criteria developed in the classroom.

4.7. Maintain a portfolio of sketches and finished work.

4.8. Create and prepare artwork for group or individual public exhibitions.

MA.5. Visual Arts: Critical Response: Students will describe and analyze their own work and the work of others using appropriate visual arts vocabulary. When appropriate, students will connect their analysis to interpretation and evaluation.

5.5. Demonstrate the ability to recognize and describe the visual, spatial, and tactile characteristics of their own work and that of others.

5.6. Demonstrate the ability to describe the kinds of imagery used to represent subject matter and ideas, for example, literal representation, simplification, abstraction, or symbolism.

5.7. Demonstrate a fundamental awareness of architectural styles and the ways that these have influenced painting and sculpture.

MA.6. Connections: Purposes and Meanings in the Arts: Students will describe the purposes for which works of dance, music, theatre, visual arts, and architecture were and are created, and, where appropriate, interpret their meanings.

6.3. Interpret the meanings of artistic works by explaining how the subject matter and/or form reflect the events, ideas, religions, and customs of people living at a particular time in history.

6.4. Describe how artistic production can shape and be influenced by the aesthetic preferences of a society.

MA.7. Connections: Roles of Artists in Communities: Students will describe the roles of artists, patrons, cultural organizations, and arts institutions in societies of the past and present.

7.2. Describe the roles of artists in specific cultures and periods, and compare similarities and differences in these roles, considering aspects such as: the conditions under which artists created, performed, and/or exhibited work and the status of artists; the sources of support for the arts; and the ways, such as apprenticeship or training, in which students learned the skills and knowledge that qualified them to produce or perform artistic work.

7.3. Identify and describe careers in at least one art form.

7.4. Describe the function of cultural organizations and arts institutions such as museums, symphonies, repertory theatres, dance companies, and historical preservation organizations.

MA.8. Connections: Concepts of Style, Stylistic Influence, and Stylistic Change: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the concepts of style, stylistic influence, and stylistic change by identifying when and where art works were created and by analyzing characteristic features of art works from various historical periods, cultures, and genres.

8.4. Identify American styles and genres of dance, music, theatre, or visual arts and architecture, describe their sources, trace their evolution, and cite well-known artists associated with these styles.

8.5. Identify and describe characteristic features of genres and styles from a variety of world cultures and cite well-known artists associated with these styles.

MA.9. Connections: Inventions, Technologies, and the Arts: Students will describe and analyze how performing and visual artists use and have used materials, inventions, and technologies in their works.

9.2. Identify and describe examples of how the discovery of new inventions and technologies, or the availability of new materials brought about changes in the arts in various time periods and cultures.

9.3. Identify and describe examples of how artists make innovative uses of technologies and inventions.

9.4. Identify and describe examples of how contemporary artists use computer technology in their work.

MA.10. Connections: Interdisciplinary Connections: Students will use knowledge of the arts and cultural resources in the study of the arts, English language arts, foreign languages, health, history and social science, mathematics, and science and technology/engineering.

10.2. Continue the above and apply knowledge of other disciplines in learning in and about the arts.

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