Indiana State Standards for Language Arts: Grade 9
Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.
IN.1. Reading: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development: Students apply their knowledge of word origins (words from other languages or from history or literature) to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading and use those words accurately.
9.1.1. Vocabulary and Concept Development: Identify and use the literal and figurative meanings of words and understand the origins of words.
9.1.2. Vocabulary and Concept Development: Distinguish between what words mean literally and what they imply and interpret what the words imply.
9.1.3. Vocabulary and Concept Development: Use knowledge of mythology (Greek, Roman, and other mythologies) to understand the origin and meaning of new words.
IN.2. Reading: Comprehension and Analysis of Nonfiction and Informational Text: Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.
9.2.1. Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials: Analyze the structure and format of reference or functional workplace documents, including the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the features to achieve their purposes.
9.2.2. Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials: Prepare a bibliography of reference materials for a report using a variety of public documents, such as consumer, government, workplace and others.
9.2.3. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Nonfiction and Informational Text: Generate relevant questions about readings on issues or topics that can be researched.
9.2.4. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Nonfiction and Informational Text: Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and related topics to demonstrate comprehension.
9.2.5. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Nonfiction and Informational Text: Demonstrate use of technology by following directions in technical manuals.
9.2.8. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Nonfiction and Informational Text: Make reasonable statements and draw conclusions about a text, supporting them with accurate examples.
9.2.6. Expository (Informational) Critique: Critique the logic of functional documents (such as an appeal to tradition or an appeal to force) by examining the sequence of information and procedures in anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings.
9.2.7. Expository (Informational) Critique: Evaluate an author's argument or defense of a claim by examining the relationship between generalizations and evidence, the comprehensiveness of evidence, and the way in which the author's intent affects the structure and tone of the text.
IN.3. Reading: Comprehension and Analysis of Literary Text: Students read and respond to grade-level-appropriate historically or culturally significant works of literature.
9.3.1. Structural Features of Literature: Explain the relationship between the purposes and the characteristics of different forms of dramatic literature (including comedy, tragedy, and dramatic monologue).
9.3.2. Structural Features of Literature: Compare and contrast the presentation of a similar theme or topic across genres (different types of writing) to explain how the selection of genre shapes the theme or topic.
9.3.3. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Analyze interactions between characters in a literary text and explain the way those interactions affect the plot.
9.3.4. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Determine characters' traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, and soliloquy (when they speak out loud to themselves).
9.3.5. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Compare works that express a universal theme and provide evidence to support the views expressed in each work.
9.3.6. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Analyze and trace an author's development of time and sequence, including the use of complex literary devices, such as foreshadowing (providing clues to future events) or flashbacks (interrupting the sequence of events to include information about an event that happened in the past).
9.3.7. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Recognize and understand the significance of various literary devices, including figurative language, imagery, allegory (the use of fictional figures and actions to express truths about human experiences), and symbolism (the use of a symbol to represent an idea or theme), and explain their appeal.
9.3.8. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Interpret and evaluate the impact of ambiguities, subtleties, contradictions, and ironies in a text.
9.3.9. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Explain how voice and the choice of a narrator affect characterization and the tone, plot, and credibility of a text.
9.3.10. Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary Text: Identify and describe the function of dialogue, soliloquies, asides, character foils, and stage designs in dramatic literature.
9.3.11. Literary Criticism: Evaluate the aesthetic qualities of style, including the impact of diction and figurative language on tone, mood, and theme.
9.3.12. Literary Criticism: Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period.
9.3.13. Literary Criticism: Explain how voice, persona, and the choice of narrator affect the mood, tone, and meaning of text.
IN.4. Writing: Processes and Features: Students discuss ideas for writing with other writers. They write coherent and focused essays that show a well-defined point of view and tightly reasoned argument.
9.4.1. Organization and Focus: Discuss ideas for writing with classmates, teachers, and other writers and develop drafts alone and collaboratively.
9.4.2. Organization and Focus: Establish a coherent thesis that conveys a clear perspective on the subject and maintain a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing.
9.4.3. Organization and Focus: Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, and appropriate modifiers.
9.4.13. Organization and Focus: Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
9.4.4. Research Process and Technology: Use writing to formulate clear research questions and to compile information from primary and secondary print or Internet sources.
9.4.5. Research Process and Technology: Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting evidence, such as scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, and definitions.
9.4.6. Research Process and Technology: Synthesize information from multiple sources, including almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents, and Internet sources.
9.4.7. Research Process and Technology: Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas.
9.4.8. Research Process and Technology: Use appropriate conventions for documentation in text, notes, and bibliographies, following the formats in specific style manuals.
9.4.9. Research Process and Technology: Use a computer to design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and graphic programs.
9.4.10. Evaluation and Revision: Review, evaluate, and revise writing for meaning, clarity, content, and mechanics.
9.4.11. Evaluation and Revision: Edit and proofread one's own writing, as well as that of others, using an editing checklist with specific examples of corrections of frequent errors.
9.4.12. Evaluation and Revision: Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and perspective, the precision of word choice, and the appropriateness of tone by taking into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.
IN.5. Writing: Applications (Different Types of Writing and Their Characteristics): At Grade 9 combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description in texts (research reports of 1,000 to 1,500 words or more). Students begin to write documents related to career development.
9.5.1. Writing Processes and Features: Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories that: describe a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events to the audience; locate scenes and incidents in specific places; describe with specific details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; in the case of short stories or autobiographical narratives, use interior monologue (what the character says silently to self) to show the character's feelings; pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood.
9.5.2. Writing Processes and Features: Write responses to literature that: demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works; support statements with evidence from the text; demonstrate an awareness of the author's style and an appreciation of the effects created; identify and assess the impact of ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.
9.5.3. Writing Processes and Features: Write expository compositions, including analytical essays, summaries, descriptive pieces, or literary analyses that: gather evidence in support of a thesis (position on the topic), including information on all relevant perspectives; communicate information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently; make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas; use a variety of reference sources, including word, pictorial, audio, and Internet sources, to locate information in support of topic; include visual aids by using technology to organize and record information on charts, data tables, maps, and graphs; anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations; use technical terms and notations accurately.
9.5.4. Writing Processes and Features: Write persuasive compositions that: organize ideas and appeals in a sustained and effective fashion with the strongest emotional appeal first and the least powerful one last; use specific rhetorical (communication) devices to support assertions, such as appealing to logic through reasoning; appealing to emotion or ethical belief; or relating a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy; clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning; address readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.
9.5.5. Writing Processes and Features: Write documents related to career development, including simple business letters and job applications that: present information purposefully and in brief to meet the needs of the intended audience; follow a conventional business letter, memorandum, or application format.
9.5.6. Writing Processes and Features: Write technical documents, such as a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, or minutes of a meeting that: report information and express ideas logically and correctly; offer detailed and accurate specifications; include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension; anticipate readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.
9.5.7. Writing Processes and Features: Use varied and expanded vocabulary, appropriate for specific forms and topics.
9.5.8. Writing Processes and Features: Write for different purposes and audiences, adjusting tone, style, and voice as appropriate.
9.5.9. Research Application: Write or deliver a research report that has been developed using a systematic research process (defines the topic, gathers information, determines credibility, reports findings) and that: uses information from a variety of sources (books, technology, multimedia), distinguishes between primary and secondary documents, and documents sources independently by using a consistent format for citations; synthesizes information gathered from a variety of sources, including technology and one's own research, and evaluates information for its relevance to the research questions; demonstrates that information that has been gathered has been summarized, that the topic has been refined through this process, and that conclusions have been drawn from synthesizing information; demonstrates that sources have been evaluated for accuracy, bias, and credibility; organizes information by classifying, categorizing, and sequencing, and demonstrates the distinction between one's own ideas from the ideas of others, and includes a bibliography (Works Cited).
IN.6. Writing: English Language Conventions: Students write using Standard English conventions.
9.6.1. Grammar and Mechanics of Writing: Identify and correctly use clauses, both main and subordinate; phrases, including gerund, infinitive, and participial; and the mechanics of punctuation, such as semicolons, colons, ellipses, and hyphens.
9.6.2. Grammar and Mechanics of Writing: Demonstrate an understanding of sentence construction, including parallel structure, subordination, and the proper placement of modifiers, and proper English usage, including the use of consistent verb tenses.
9.6.3. Manuscript Form: Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization.
9.6.4. Manuscript Form: Apply appropriate manuscript conventions - including title page presentation, pagination, spacing, and margins - and integration of source and support material by citing sources within the text, using direct quotations, and paraphrasing.
IN.7. Listening and Speaking: Skills, Strategies, and Applications: Students formulate thoughtful judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations of their own that convey clear and distinct perspectives and solid reasoning.
9.7.1. Comprehension: Summarize a speaker's purpose and point of view and ask questions concerning the speaker's content, delivery, and attitude toward the subject.
9.7.2. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication: Choose appropriate techniques for developing the introduction and conclusion in a speech, including the use of literary quotations, anecdotes (stories about a specific event), and references to authoritative sources.
9.7.3. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication: Recognize and use elements of classical speech forms (including the introduction, transitions, body, and conclusion) in formulating rational arguments and applying the art of persuasion and debate.
9.7.4. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication: Use props, visual aids, graphs, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and accuracy of presentations.
9.7.5. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication: Produce concise notes for extemporaneous speeches (speeches delivered without a planned script).
9.7.6. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication: Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience and choose effective verbal and nonverbal techniques (including voice, gestures, and eye contact) for presentations.
9.7.7. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Make judgments about the ideas under discussion and support those judgments with convincing evidence.
9.7.8. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres (including televised news, news magazines, documentaries, and online information) cover the same event.
9.7.9. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Analyze historically significant speeches (such as Abraham Lincoln's 'House Divided' speech or Winston Churchill's 'We Will Never Surrender' speech) to find the rhetorical devices and features that make them memorable.
9.7.10. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Assess how language and delivery affect the mood and tone of the oral communication and make an impact on the audience.
9.7.11. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Evaluate the clarity, quality, effectiveness, and general coherence of a speaker's important points, arguments, evidence, organization of ideas, delivery, choice of words, and use of language.
9.7.12. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Analyze the types of arguments used by the speaker, including argument by causation, analogy (comparison), authority, emotion, and the use of sweeping generalizations.
9.7.13. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications: Identify the artistic effects of a media presentation and evaluate the techniques used to create them (comparing, for example, Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet with Franco Zefferelli's film version).
9.7.14. Speaking Applications: Deliver narrative presentations that: narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience; locate scenes and incidents in specific places; describe with specific details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of characters; time the presentation of actions to accommodate time or mood changes.
9.7.15. Speaking Applications: Deliver expository (informational) presentations that: provide evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives; convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently; make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas; include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs; anticipate and address the listeners' potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations; use technical terms and notations accurately.
9.7.16. Speaking Applications: Apply appropriate interviewing techniques: prepare and ask relevant questions; make notes of responses; use language that conveys maturity, sensitivity, and respect; respond correctly and effectively to questions; demonstrate knowledge of the subject or organization; compile and report responses; evaluate the effectiveness of the interview.
9.7.17. Speaking Applications: Deliver oral responses to literature that: advance a judgment demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas of works or passages; support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text and to other works; demonstrate awareness of the author's writing style and an appreciation of the effects created; identify and assess the impact of ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.
9.7.18. Speaking Applications: Deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems and solutions and causes and effects) that: structure ideas and arguments in a coherent, logical fashion from the hypothesis to a reasonable conclusion, based on evidence; contain speech devices that support assertions (such as by appeal to logic through reasoning; by appeal to emotion or ethical belief; or by use of personal anecdote, case study, or analogy); clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning; anticipate and address the listener's concerns and counterarguments.
9.7.19. Speaking Applications: Deliver descriptive presentations that: establish a clear point of view on the subject of the presentation; establish the presenter's relationship with the subject of the presentation (whether the presentation is made as an uninvolved observer or by someone who is personally involved); contain effective, factual descriptions of appearance, concrete images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.
IN.JRN. Journalism - Students study communications history and the legal boundaries and ethical principles that guide journalistic writing as they learn writing styles and visual design for a variety of media formats. The ability to express themselves publicly with meaning and clarity for the purpose of informing, entertaining, or persuading will prepare students to work on high school publications or broadcast staffs and to take a career path in journalism.
JRN.1. Historical Perspectives: Students understand the function, history, development of a free and independent press in the United States.
JRN.1.1 Define the function of an independent press in a free society and explain how the media in the United States and other free societies differ from the public media in non-free societies and have done so from Colonial times.
JRN.1.2 Explain the role of the free press, such as the publication of the Federalist Papers, in the passage of the Constitution of the United States of America and in the eventual addition of the Bill of Rights.
JRN.1.3 Explain the impact of the First Amendment and important events on the development of freedom of speech and an independent press in the United States that includes:
JRN.1.3.1 1690 1st newspaper in America (Publick Occurrences, Both Forreign and Domestick),
JRN.1.3.2 1721 James Franklin exercises the privilege of editorial independence (The New England Courant),
JRN.1.3.3 1798 Sedition Act,
JRN.1.3.4 1841Horace Greeley introduces the editorial page,
JRN.1.3.5 1887 Nellie Bly joins Pulitzer's newspaper New York World
JRN.1.3.6 1905 Robert S. Abbott founds Chicago Defender,
JRN.1.3.7 1931 case of Near v. Minnesota,
JRN.1.3.8 1951 Edward R. Murrow pioneers television news,
JRN.1.3.9 1966 Freedom of Information Act,
JRN.1.3.10 1971 New York Times publishes the Pentagon Papers,
JRN.1.3.11 1980 1st online newspaper (Columbus Dispatch)
JRN.1.3.12 1991 World Wide Web expands online news and information, and
JRN.1.3.13 Other significant or recent events.
JRN.1.4 Explain how having a free press contributed to the development of our republic and the preservation of democratic principles.
JRN.1.5 Evaluate the impact of significant individuals and their roles in the development of an independent press in the history of American print and non-print journalism, including (in the 1700s) Benjamin Franklin, John Peter Zenger, (in the 1800s) Sara Josepha Hale, Horace Greeley, Frederick Douglass, Nellie Bly, Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst, (in the 1900s) Robert S. Abbott, Margaret Bourke-White, Henry Luce, Malcolm Muir, Ernie Pyle, Walter Winchell, Edward R. Murrow, and William S. Paley
JRN.1.6 Identify and describe significant trends in the development of journalism from the introduction of the Gutenberg press to today that include:
JRN.1.6.1 From 1446 to 1800 (newspapers, books, magazines),
JRN.1.6.2 Industrial Revolution advances (telegraph, telephone, phonograph, photography, radio, television), and
JRN.1.6.3 Recent technological innovations (cable, digital, satellite, cellular).
JRN.1.7 Explain how new technologies (online newspapers using media convergence, email, blogs, podcasts, wikis and Wikipedia, talk radio, digital cameras, PDAs, interactive video Web sites, interactive video cell phones) have affected the dissemination of information in the United States.
JRN.1.8 Explain how new technologies are affecting the events or dissemination of information in non-free societies, such as some countries in the Middle East, Africa, or Asia.
JRN.2. Law and Ethics: Students understand and apply knowledge of legal and ethical principles related to the functioning of a free and independent press in the United States.
JRN.2.1 Law: Compare and contrast the rights, the responsibilities, and the role played by a free, independent press in a democratic society to maintain accuracy, balance, fairness, objectivity, and truthfulness.
JRN.2.2 Law: Analyze how the First Amendment, the Bill of Rights, and the Indiana State Constitution along with federal and state case law affect the rights and responsibilities of the press.
JRN.2.3 Law: Describe the impact of key Supreme Court decisions affecting student expression and the student press that includes:
JRN.2.3.1 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969),
JRN.2.3.2 Bethel v. Fraser (1986),
JRN.2.3.3 Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988),
JRN.2.3.4 Morse v. Frederick (2007), and
JRN.2.3.5 Other significant or recent decisions.
JRN.2.4 Law: Apply the legal boundaries and concepts affecting journalism to scholastic journalism.
JRN.2.4.1 Censorship: removing of material by an authority
JRN.2.4.2 Copyright: giving exclusive rights to material a person has written or created
JRN.2.4.3 Libel and slander: printing or presenting a falsehood that damages another's reputation
JRN.2.4.4 Obscenity and vulgar language: using material that offends community standards and lacks serious artistic purpose
JRN.2.4.5 Prior review: reviewing prior to publication for purposes of approval or rejection
JRN.2.4.6 Retraction: correcting something printed or said in the most timely fashion
JRN.2.4.7 Student expression: voicing ideas and opinions in school environments
JRN.2.5 Ethics: Identify essential ethical principles supporting the integrity of journalists in their work or signaling misuse of ethics in their work, which include recognizing:
JRN.2.5.1 Confidentiality: assuring secrecy for information
JRN.2.5.2 Fabrication: inventing stories or accounts
JRN.2.5.3 Photo-manipulation: portraying false visual information
JRN.2.5.4 Off-the-record remarks: agreeing comments are not for publication
JRN.2.5.5 Plagiarism: using another person's work as one's own
JRN.2.5.6 Anonymous sources: using an unnamed source
JRN.2.6 Analyze ethical guidelines or codes of ethics and explain how or why they are an integral part of standards from professional organizations, such as:
JRN.2.6.1 American Society of Newspaper Editors,
JRN.2.6.2 The Poynter Institute for Media Studies, or
JRN.2.6.3 Society of Professional Journalists.
JRN.2.7 Analyze case studies or examples and evaluate how ethical responsibilities and principles affect reporting and the credibility (the belief that what someone says is true) of what is reported.
JRN.2.8 Compare and contrast ethical guidelines in the standards or mission statements followed by professional organizations with those from student organizations, such as:
JRN.2.8.1 Indiana High School Press Association (IHSPA),
JRN.2.8.2 Journalism Education Association (JEA), or
JRN.2.8.3 National School Press Association (NSPA).
JRN.3. Media Analysis: Students analyze and evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of news and information found in print, on the Internet, and in other media.
JRN.3.1 Analysis and Evaluation of Media: Analyze news stories and reports that focus on specific issues, people, and events for the following qualities:
JRN.3.1.1 Importance or amount of space or time,
JRN.3.1.2 Proximity or nearness,
JRN.3.1.3 Timeliness or immediacy,
JRN.3.1.4 Prominence or names,
JRN.3.1.5 Conflict, consequence, or impact,
JRN.3.1.7 Human interest, or
JRN.3.2 Analysis and Evaluation of Media: Analyze and evaluate news stories, feature stories and columns (human interest, profile/personality, sports, in-depth, special occasion, humor, sidebars), op ed pages, commentaries, and editorials in local, national, international newspapers and magazines as well as online news sources (electronic copy, blogs, convergence) for:
JRN.3.2.4 Proper attribution, and
JRN.3.2.5 Truthfulness or credibility.
JRN.3.3 Analysis and Evaluation of Media: Analyze and evaluate the essential features of journalistic writing in a variety of news sources for:
JRN.3.3.1 Brevity and clarity,
JRN.3.3.2 Content, topics or themes appropriate for the audience,
JRN.3.3.3 Credible and multiple information sources,
JRN.3.3.4 Effective use of language,
JRN.3.3.5 Rhetorical strategies (language that focuses a message, such as persuasive words, logical consistency, humor, satire, or other intent signals), and
JRN.3.3.6 Structural elements and organization.
JRN.3.4 Analysis and Evaluation of Media: Analyze and evaluate news stories and features found in student-generated publications and media by using criteria that includes:
JRN.3.4.2 Audience and purpose,
JRN.3.4.3 Information provided or story
JRN.3.4.4 Quality of work or presentation,
JRN.3.4.5 Rhetorical strategies (language that focuses a message, such as persuasive words, logical consistency, humor, satire, or other intent signals), and
JRN.3.4.6 Type of impact.
JRN.3.5 Critique of Mass Media: Compare and contrast coverage of the same news stories in a variety of newspapers or non-print media.
JRN.3.6 Critique of Mass Media: Evaluate the credibility of sources in a variety of newspaper and non-print media stories.
JRN.4. Journalistic Writing Processes: Students discuss ideas for writing with others. They write coherent and focused stories that demonstrate well-researched information, appropriate journalistic structure and style, and a tightly reasoned flow of ideas. Students progress through stages of journalistic writing processes.
JRN.4.1 Gathering Information: Discuss ideas for writing with classmates, teachers, other writers, or community members.
JRN.4.2 Gathering Information: Identify relevant issues and events of interest to readers through current news analysis, surveys, research reports, statistical data, and interviews with readers.
JRN.4.3 Gathering Information: Ask clear interview questions to guide a balanced and unbiased information-gathering process that includes:
JRN.4.3.1 Researching background information,
JRN.4.3.2 Formulating questions that elicit valuable information,
JRN.4.3.3 Observing and recording details during the interview,
JRN.4.3.4 Effectively concluding the interview,
JRN.4.3.5 Double-checking information before writing the story, and
JRN.4.3.6 Keeping dated notes or interview records on file.
JRN.4.4 Gathering Information: Follow ethical standards related to information gathering that include the appropriate citing of sources and the importance of avoiding plagiarism.
JRN.4.5 Organization and Focus: Demonstrate knowledge of the structure of journalistic writing (feature stories and columns, news stories, op ed pieces, commentaries) for a variety of print, broadcast and Internet media that includes:
JRN.4.5.1 The inverted pyramid (lead, most important details, less important details, least important details),
JRN.4.5.2 Narrative storytelling pattern (indirect lead, facts and information, closing), or
JRN.4.5.3 Combinations of the inverted pyramid and narrative storytelling pattern.
JRN.4.6 Organization and Focus: Select and use an appropriate journalistic style for writing to inform, entertain, persuade, and transmit cultural context and climate that includes:
JRN.4.6.1 Short, focused sentences and paragraphs,
JRN.4.6.2 Varied word usage and descriptive vocabulary,
JRN.4.6.3 Active voice verbs, and
JRN.4.6.4 Specific word choice to avoid jargon and vague language.
JRN.4.7 Organization and Focus: Use language effectively to establish a specific tone.
JRN.4.8 Evaluate and Revise: Evaluate and revise the content of copy for meaning, clarity, and purpose.
JRN.4.9 Evaluate and Revise: Revise and edit copy to improve sentence variety and style and to enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with purpose, audience, and journalistic form.
JRN.4.10 Evaluate and Revise: Revise and edit copy to ensure effective, grammatically correct communication using appropriate proofreading or copy editing symbols.
JRN.5. Writing for Media: Students write news stories, features stories and columns, in-depth issue features, reviews, editorials, or opinions and commentaries effectively and accurately in print and media, while adhering to legal and ethical standards for journalist. Students demonstrate an understanding of the research, organizational, and drafting strategies in journalistic writing processes. Student writing demonstrates a command of Standard English and the use of media formats that follow specific style manual guidelines for consistency.
JRN.5.1 Write news stories that:
JRN.5.1.1 Use effective headlines (label, sentence, combination) and captions.
JRN.5.1.2 Use a variety of creative leads.
JRN.5.1.3 Contain adequate information from credible sources.
JRN.5.1.4 Narrate events accurately including their significance to the audience.
JRN.5.1.5 Include appropriate quotations and proper attribution.
JRN.5.1.6 Describe specific incidents, and actions, with sufficient detail.
JRN.5.1.7 Cite sources of information correctly.
JRN.5.1.8 Follow standard journalistic language and format conventions.
JRN.5.2 Write feature stories (human interest, profile/personality, sports, special occasion, humor, sidebars) and columns that:
JRN.5.2.1 Use effective headlines (label, sentence, combination) and captions.
JRN.5.2.2 Use a variety of creative leads.
JRN.5.2.3 Contain adequate information from credible sources.
JRN.5.2.4 Narrate events accurately including their significance to the audience.
JRN.5.2.5 Include appropriate quotations and proper attribution.
JRN.5.2.6 Describe specific incidents, and actions, with sufficient detail.
JRN.5.2.7 Cite sources of information correctly.
JRN.5.2.8 Follow standard journalistic language and format conventions.
JRN.5.3 Write in-depth issue features that:
JRN.5.3.1 Use effective headlines (label, sentence, combination) and captions.
JRN.5.3.2 Are adequately researched and use a variety of leads.
JRN.5.3.3 Explore the personal significance of an experience
JRN.5.3.4 Use appropriate quotations and provide proper attribution.
JRN.5.3.5 Draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes related to important beliefs or generalizations about life.
JRN.5.3.6 Maintain a balance between individual events and more general or abstract ideas.
JRN.5.3.7 Cite sources of information using the correct form for attribution.
JRN.5.3.8 Follow standard journalistic language and format conventions.
JRN.5.4 Write reviews of art exhibits, musical concerts, theatrical events, books or films that:
JRN.5.4.1 Use effective headlines (label, sentence, combination) and captions.
JRN.5.4.2 Use a variety of creative leads and organize material to adequately inform or persuade readers.
JRN.5.4.3 Identify critical elements of the work being reviewed (author, performer, artist, topic, theme, title, location of the event or media, cost).
JRN.5.4.4 Compare the new work to previous work.
JRN.5.4.5 Describe audience reaction.
JRN.5.4.6 Use appropriate quotations and provide proper attribution.
JRN.5.4.7 Follow standard journalistic language and format conventions.
JRN.5.5 Write editorials, opinion pieces, or commentaries that:
JRN.5.5.1 Use effective headlines (label, sentence, combination) and captions.
JRN.5.5.2 Are adequately researched and use a variety of creative leads.
JRN.5.5.3 Explore the personal significance of an experience.
JRN.5.5.4 Draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes related to important beliefs or generalizations about life.
JRN.5.5.5 Maintain a balance between individual events and more general and abstract ideas.
JRN.5.5.6 Use appropriate quotations and provide proper attribution.
JRN.5.5.7 Cite sources of information using the correct form for attribution.
JRN.5.5.8 Follow standard journalistic language and format conventions.
JRN.5.6 Use varied and extended or technical and scientific vocabulary or language that is appropriate for journalistic style, different purposes, and a variety of audiences.
JRN.6. Technology and Design: Students use principles, elements, tools, and techniques of media design to analyze, navigate, and create effective, aesthetically pleasing media formats.
JRN.6.1 Analyze and use elements and principles of graphic design to develop visual presentations that reinforce and enhance written messages with special attention to typography and layout.
JRN.6.2 Follow basic rules of newspaper and online publication design related to layout.
JRN.6.3 Design and format features for a variety of publications or media using related terminology that includes:
JRN.6.3.4 Font, and
JRN.6.4 Use photography, art, or graphic art to accompany copy, enhance readability, and appeal to a variety of audiences.
JRN.6.5 Create original graphics that accompany copy, enhance readability, and appeal to a variety of audiences.
JRN.6.6 Analyze and use a variety of media formats that include:
JRN.6.6.1 Media convergence,
JRN.6.6.2 Internet and evolving technologies,
JRN.6.6.3 Podcasts and blogs, and
JRN.6.6.4 Satellite communications.
JRN.7. Media Leadership and Career Development: Students understand the organization, economics, and management of media staffs. They explore career paths and further educational opportunities in journalism.
JRN.7.1 Media Leadership: Analyze and evaluate leadership models used by media staffs and organizations.
JRN.7.2 Media Leadership: Identify the rights and responsibilities guaranteed by state and federal governments for media staffs.
JRN.7.3 Media Leadership: Identify and describe economic factors and technological developments that characterize the integration or convergence of media formats that follow style manual guidelines.
JRN.7.4 Media Leadership: Analyze factors affecting the cost of producing a publication that include:
JRN.7.4.1 Development of the copy,
JRN.7.4.2 Format (print, online, or media), and
JRN.7.4.3 Distribution systems.
JRN.7.5 Media Leadership: Create and implement financial plans to support a publication including sales and advertising.
JRN.7.6 Career Development: Analyze the career paths of noted and recent journalists, what made each a distinctive contributor to the field, and how this information could guide a career path.
JRN.7.7 Career Development: Compare and contrast different areas of journalism (print, broadcast, Internet and new technologies, public relations and business, education) and explore educational requirements or work experiences necessary to pursue a career in each area.
JRN.7.8 Career Development: Create portfolios (print or non-print) that include:
JRN.7.8.1 Personal narrative summary of high school experience,
JRN.7.8.2 Resumes or career goal statements,
JRN.7.8.3 Letters of recommendation,
JRN.7.8.4 Samples of best clips or work, and
JRN.7.8.5 Recognition, awards, certificates, or testimonies.