Arizona State Standards for Mathematics: Grade 9
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AZ.MHS-S1. Number and Operations
MHS-S1C1. Number Sense: Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, and the relationships among numbers and different number systems.
MHS-S1C1-01. Justify with examples the relation between the number system being used (natural numbers, whole numbers, integers, rational numbers and irrational numbers) and the question of whether or not an equation has a solution in that number system.
MHS-S1C1-02. Sort sets of numbers as finite or infinite, and justify the sort.
MHS-S1C1-03. Express that the distance between two numbers is the absolute value of their difference.
MHS-S1C2. Numerical Operations: Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another.
MHS-S1C2-01. Solve word problems involving absolute value, powers, roots, and scientific notation.
MHS-S1C2-02. Summarize the properties of and connections between real number operations; justify manipulations of expressions using the properties of real number operations.
MHS-S1C2-03. Calculate powers and roots of rational and irrational numbers.
MHS-S1C2-04. Compute using scientific notation.
MHS-S1C3. Estimation: Use estimation strategies reasonably and fluently while integrating content from each of the other strands.
MHS-S1C3-01. Determine rational approximations of irrational numbers.
MHS-S1C3-02. Use estimation to determine the reasonableness of a solution.
MHS-S1C3-03. Determine when an estimate is more appropriate than an exact answer.
MHS-S1C3-04. Estimate the location of the rational or irrational numbers on a number line.
AZ.MHS-S2. Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
MHS-S2C1. Data Analysis (Statistics): Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data.
MHS-S2C1-01. Draw inferences about data sets from lists, tables, matrices, and plots.
MHS-S2C1-02. Organize collected data into an appropriate graphical representation with or without technology.
MHS-S2C1-03. Display data, including paired data, as lists, tables, matrices, and plots with or without technology; make predictions and observations about patterns or departures from patterns.
MHS-S2C1-04. Make inferences by comparing data sets using one or more summary statistics.
MHS-S2C1-05. Determine which measure of center is most appropriate in a given situation and explain why.
MHS-S2C1-06. Evaluate the reasonableness of conclusions drawn from data analysis.
MHS-S2C1-07. Identify misrepresentations and distortions in displays of data and explain why they are misrepresentations or distortions.
MHS-S2C1-08. Design simple experiments or investigations and collect data to answer questions.
MHS-S2C2. Probability: Understand and apply the basic concepts of probability.
MHS-S2C2-01. Make predictions and solve problems based on theoretical probability models.
MHS-S2C2-02. Determine the theoretical probability of events, estimate probabilities using experiments, and compare the two.
MHS-S2C2-03. Use simulations to model situations involving independent and dependent events.
MHS-S2C2-04. Explain and use the law of large numbers (that experimental results tend to approach theoretical probabilities after a large number of trials).
MHS-S2C2-05. Use concepts and formulas of area to calculate geometric probabilities.
MHS-S2C3. Systematic Listing and Counting: Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes.
MHS-S2C3-01. Apply the addition and multiplication principles of counting, representing these principles algebraically using factorial notation.
MHS-S2C3-02. Apply appropriate means of computing the number of possible arrangements of items using permutations where order matters, and combinations where order does not matter.
MHS-S2C3-03. Determine the number of possible outcomes of an event.
MHS-S2C4. Vertex-Edge Graphs: Understand and apply vertex-edge graphs.
MHS-S2C4-01. Solve network problems using graphs and matrices.
AZ.MHS-S3. Patterns, Algebra, and Functions
MHS-S3C1. Patterns: Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically while integrating content from each of the other strands.
MHS-S3C1-01. Recognize, describe, and analyze sequences using tables, graphs, words, or symbols; use sequences in modeling.
MHS-S3C1-02. Determine a specific term of a sequence.
MHS-S3C1-03. Create sequences using explicit and recursive formulas involving both subscripts and function notation.
MHS-S3C2. Functions and Relationships: Describe and model functions and their relationships.
MHS-S3C2-01. Sketch and interpret a graph that models a given context, make connections between the graph and the context, and solve maximum and minimum problems using the graph.
MHS-S3C2-02. Determine if a relationship represented by an equation, graph, table, description, or set of ordered pairs is a function.
MHS-S3C2-03. Use function notation; evaluate a function at a specified value in its domain.
MHS-S3C2-04. Use equations, graphs, tables, descriptions, or sets of ordered pairs to express a relationship between two variables.
MHS-S3C2-05. Recognize and solve problems that can be modeled using a system of two equations in two variables.
MHS-S3C2-06. Recognize and solve problems that can be modeled using a quadratic function.
MHS-S3C2-07. Determine domain and range of a function from an equation, graph, table, description, or set of ordered pairs.
MHS-S3C3. Algebraic Representations: Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations.
MHS-S3C3-01. Create and explain the need for equivalent forms of an equation or expression.
MHS-S3C3-02. Solve formulas for specified variables.
MHS-S3C3-03. Write an equation given a table of values, two points on the line, the slope and a point on the line, or the graph of the line.
MHS-S3C3-04. Determine from two linear equations whether the lines are parallel, perpendicular, coincident, or intersecting but not perpendicular.
MHS-S3C3-05. Solve linear equations and equations involving absolute value, with one variable.
MHS-S3C3-06. Solve linear inequalities in one variable.
MHS-S3C3-07. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables.
MHS-S3C3-08. Simplify and evaluate polynomials, rational expressions, expressions containing absolute value, and radicals.
MHS-S3C3-09. Multiply and divide monomial expressions with integer exponents.
MHS-S3C3-10. Add, subtract, and multiply polynomial and rational expressions.
MHS-S3C3-11. Solve square root equations involving only one radical.
MHS-S3C3-12. Factor quadratic polynomials in the form of ax2 + bx + c where a, b, and c are integers.
MHS-S3C3-13. Solve quadratic equations.
MHS-S3C3-14. Factor higher order polynomials.
MHS-S3C3-15. Solve problems using operations with matrices.
MHS-S3C4. Analysis of Change: Analyze how changing the values of one quantity corresponds to change in the values of another quantity.
MHS-S3C4-01. Determine the slope and intercepts of the graph of a linear function, interpreting slope as a constant rate of change.
MHS-S3C4-02. Solve problems involving rate of change.
MHS-S3C4-03. Solve interest problems.
AZ.MHS-S4. Geometry and Measurement
MHS-S4C1. Geometric Properties: Analyze the attributes and properties of 2- and 3- dimensional figures and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships.
MHS-S4C1-01. Use the basic properties of a circle (relationships between angles, radii, intercepted arcs, chords, tangents, and secants) to prove basic theorems and solve problems.
MHS-S4C1-02. Visualize solids and surfaces in 3-dimensional space when given 2-dimensional representations and create 2-dimensional representations for the surfaces of 3-dimensional objects.
MHS-S4C1-03. Create and analyze inductive and deductive arguments concerning geometric ideas and relationships.
MHS-S4C1-04. Apply properties, theorems, and constructions about parallel lines, perpendicular lines, and angles to prove theorems.
MHS-S4C1-05. Explore Euclid's five postulates in the plane and their limitations.
MHS-S4C1-06. Solve problems using angle and side length relationships and attributes of polygons.
MHS-S4C1-07. Use the hierarchy of quadrilaterals in deductive reasoning.
MHS-S4C1-08. Prove similarity and congruence of triangles.
MHS-S4C1-09. Solve problems using the triangle inequality property.
MHS-S4C1-10. Solve problems using right triangles, including special triangles.
MHS-S4C1-11. Solve problems using the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios of the acute angles of a right triangle.
MHS-S4C2. Transformation of Shapes: Apply spatial reasoning to create transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
MHS-S4C2-01. Determine whether a transformation of a 2-dimensional figure on a coordinate plane represents a translation, reflection, rotation, or dilation and whether congruence is preserved.
MHS-S4C2-02. Determine the new coordinates of a point when a single transformation is performed on a 2-dimensional figure.
MHS-S4C2-03. Sketch and describe the properties of a 2-dimensional figure that is the result of two or more transformations.
MHS-S4C2-04. Determine the effects of a single transformation on linear or area measurements of a 2-dimensional figure.
MHS-S4C3. Coordinate Geometry: Specify and describe spatial relationships using rectangular and other coordinate systems while integrating content from each of the other strands.
MHS-S4C3-01. Determine how to find the midpoint between two points in the coordinate plane.
MHS-S4C3-02. Illustrate the connection between the distance formula and the Pythagorean Theorem.
MHS-S4C3-03. Determine the distance between two points in the coordinate plane.
MHS-S4C3-04. Verify characteristics of a given geometric figure using coordinate formulas for distance, midpoint, and slope to confirm parallelism, perpendicularity, and congruence.
MHS-S4C3-05. Graph a linear equation or linear inequality in two variables.
MHS-S4C3-06. Describe how changing the parameters of a linear function affect the shape and position of its graph.
MHS-S4C3-07. Determine the solution to a system of linear equations in two variables from the graphs of the equations.
MHS-S4C3-08. Graph a quadratic function and interpret x-intercepts as zeros.
MHS-S4C4. Measurement: Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements.
MHS-S4C4-01. Use dimensional analysis to keep track of units of measure when converting.
MHS-S4C4-02. Find the length of a circular arc; find the area of a sector of a circle.
MHS-S4C4-03. Determine the effect that changing dimensions has on the perimeter, area, or volume of a figure.
MHS-S4C4-04. Solve problems involving similar figures using ratios and proportions
MHS-S4C4-05. Calculate the surface area and volume of 3-dimensional figures and solve for missing measures.
AZ.MHS-S5. Structure and Logic
MHS-S5C1. Algorithms and Algorithmic Thinking: Use reasoning to solve mathematical problems
MHS-S5C1-01. Select an algorithm that explains a particular mathematical process; determine the purpose of a simple mathematical algorithm.
MHS-S5C1-02. Analyze algorithms for validity and equivalence recognizing the purpose of the algorithm.
MHS-S5C2. Logic, Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Proof: Evaluate situations, select problem-solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize their applications.
MHS-S5C2-01. Analyze a problem situation, determine the question(s) to be answered, organize given information, determine how to represent the problem, and identify implicit and explicit assumptions that have been made.
MHS-S5C2-02. Solve problems by formulating one or more strategies, applying the strategies, verifying the solution(s), and communicating the reasoning used to obtain the solution(s).
MHS-S5C2-03. Evaluate a solution for reasonableness and interpret the meaning of the solution in the context of the original problem.
MHS-S5C2-04. Generalize a solution strategy for a single problem to a class of related problems; explain the role of generalizations in inductive and deductive reasoning.
MHS-S5C2-05. Summarize and communicate mathematical ideas using formal and informal reasoning.
MHS-S5C2-06. Synthesize mathematical information from multiple sources to draw a conclusion, make inferences based on mathematical information, evaluate the conclusions of others, analyze a mathematical argument, and recognize flaws or gaps in reasoning.
MHS-S5C2-07. Find structural similarities within different algebraic expressions and geometric figures.
MHS-S5C2-08. Use inductive reasoning to make conjectures, use deductive reasoning to analyze and prove a valid conjecture, and develop a counterexample to refute an invalid conjecture.
MHS-S5C2-09. State the inverse, converse, and contrapositive of a given statement and state the relationship between the truth value of these statements and the original statement.
MHS-S5C2-10. List related if... then statements in logical order.
MHS-S5C2-11. Draw a simple valid conclusion from a given if...then statement and a minor premise.
MHS-S5C2-12. Construct a simple formal deductive proof.
MHS-S5C2-13. Identify and explain the roles played by definitions, postulates, propositions and theorems in the logical structure of mathematics, including Euclidean geometry.