Arizona State Standards for Language Arts: Grade 9

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

AZ.R09-S1. Reading Process

R09-S1C1. Print Concepts: Demonstrate understanding of print concepts.

R09-S1C2. Phonemic Awareness: Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech.

R09-S1C3. Phonics: Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts.

R09-S1C4. Vocabulary: Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.

R09-S1C4-01. Determine the meaning of vocabulary, using linguistic roots and affixes (e.g., Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxon).

R09-S1C4-02. Infer word meanings from context (e.g., definition, example, restatement, comparison/contrast, cause/effect).

R09-S1C4-03. Distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words.

R09-S1C4-04. Identify the meaning of metaphors based on common literary allusions.

R09-S1C4-05. Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and correct spellings by using resources such as general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available.

R09-S1C5. Fluency: Read fluently.

R09-S1C5-01. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression).

R09-S1C6. Comprehension Strategies: Employ strategies to comprehend text.

R09-S1C6-01. Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words).

R09-S1C6-02. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.

R09-S1C6-03. Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.

R09-S1C6-04. Connect information and events in text to experience and to related text and sources.

R09-S1C6-05. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, sequence-time order, cause and effect relationships, logical order, by classification, problem-solution) of text to aid comprehension.

AZ.R09-S2. Comprehending Literary Text

R09-S2C1. Elements of Literature: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature.

R09-S2C1-01. Describe the author's use of literary elements

R09-S2C1-01-a. Theme (moral, lesson, meaning, message, view or comment on life),

R09-S2C1-01-b. Point of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient),

R09-S2C1-01-c. Characterization (qualities, motives, actions, thoughts, dialogue, development, interactions),

R09-S2C1-01-d. Setting (time of day or year, historical period, place, situation), and

R09-S2C1-01-e. Plot (exposition, conflict, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution).

R09-S2C1-02. Explain different elements of figurative language, including simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, symbolism, allusion, and imagery in a literary selection.

R09-S2C1-03. Compare (and contrast) works within a literary genre that deal with similar themes (e.g., compare short stories, novels, short stories, poems).

R09-S2C1-04. Compare interactions among major characters and minor characters in literary text with emphasis upon how the plot is revealed through action of the dialog.

R09-S2C2. Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature: Recognize and apply knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of American, British, and world literature.

R09-S2C2-01. Describe the historical and cultural aspects found in cross-cultural works of literature.

R09-S2C2-02. Compare (and contrast) classic works of literature that deal with similar topics and problems (e.g., individual and society, meaning of friendship, freedom, responsibility).

R09-S2C2-03. Recognize ways that forms of literature (including poetry, novel and/or short story) present similar themes differently across genres.

AZ.R09-S3. Comprehending Informational Text

R09-S3C1. Expository Text: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.

R09-S3C1-01. Compare (and contrast) original text to a summary for accuracy of the main ideas, inclusion of critical details, and the extent to which it conveys the underlying meaning of the original text.

R09-S3C1-02. Distinguish facts from opinions in expository selections such as editorials, newspaper articles, essays, reviews, and critiques, providing supporting evidence from the text.

R09-S3C1-03. Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences, concluding sentences, end notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in

R09-S3C1-04. Organize information from both primary and secondary sources by taking notes, outlining ideas, paraphrasing information; and by making charts, conceptual maps, learning logs, and/or timelines. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

R09-S3C1-05. Interpret graphic sources of information (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) to support ideas. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

R09-S3C1-06. Use knowledge of modes of expository writing (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order, classification schemes, sequence-time order, problem-solution, analogy, definition, narrative) to interpret te

R09-S3C1-07. Explain how one excerpt relates and contributes to the reading selection (e.g., sentence to paragraph, paragraph to selection).

R09-S3C1-08. Support conclusions drawn from ideas and concepts in expository text.

R09-S3C2. Functional Text: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.

R09-S3C2-01. Synthesize information from multiple sources (e.g., texts, maps, illustrations, workplace documents, schematic diagrams) to solve a problem.

R09-S3C2-02. Synthesize information from multiple sources (e.g., texts, maps, illustrations, workplace documents, schematic diagrams) to draw conclusions.

R09-S3C2-03. Identify the objective(s) of functional text (e.g., warranties, product information, technical manuals, consumer publications, workplace documents).

R09-S3C3. Persuasive Text: Explain basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the author's purpose and use of persuasive strategies.

R09-S3C3-01. Identify the central argument and its elements (e.g., argument by cause and effect, analogy, authority, emotion, logic) in persuasive text.

R09-S3C3-02. Evaluate the appropriateness of an author's word choice for an intended audience.

R09-S3C3-03. Identify unsupported inferences or fallacious reasoning (e.g., circular reasoning, false causality, over-generalization, over-simplification, self-contradiction) in the arguments advanced in persuasive text.

AZ.W09-S1. Writing Process

W09-S1C1. Prewriting: Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

W09-S1C1-01. Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, notes and logs, graphic organizers, record of writing ideas and discussion, printed material or other sources).

W09-S1C1-02. Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece.

W09-S1C1-03. Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

W09-S1C1-04. Establish a controlling idea appropriate to the type of writing.

W09-S1C1-05. Use organizational strategies (e.g., outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing.

W09-S1C1-06. Maintain a record (e.g., lists, journals, folders, notebooks) of writing ideas.

W09-S1C1-07. Use time management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

W09-S1C2. Drafting: Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

W09-S1C2-01. Use a prewriting plan to develop the main idea(s) with supporting details.

W09-S1C2-02. Sequence ideas into a cohesive, meaningful order.

W09-S1C3. Revising: Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

W09-S1C3-01. Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency.

W09-S1C3-02. Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

W09-S1C3-03. Delete irrelevant and/or redundant information from the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

W09-S1C3-04. Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs in the draft in order to clarify the meaning or to enhance the writing style.

W09-S1C3-05. Add transitional words and phrases to the draft in order to clarify meaning or enhance the writing style.

W09-S1C3-06. Use a variety of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound, complex) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.

W09-S1C3-07. Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.

W09-S1C3-08. Use resources and reference materials (e.g., thesaurus, dictionary) to select more effective and precise language.

W09-S1C4. Editing: Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

W09-S1C4-01. Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft.

W09-S1C4-02. Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct conventions.

W09-S1C4-03. Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions.

W09-S1C4-04. Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the draft.

W09-S1C5. Publishing: Publishing includes formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

W09-S1C5-01. Prepare writing that follows a format appropriate for the purpose (e.g., for display, sharing with others, submitting to a publication).

W09-S1C5-02. Include such techniques as principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns) and graphics (e.g., drawings, charts, graphs), when applicable, to enhance the final product.

W09-S1C5-03. Write legibly.

AZ.W09-S2. Writing Components

W09-S2C1. Ideas and Content: Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader's attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

W09-S2C1-01. Maintain a clear, narrow focus to support the topic.

W09-S2C1-02. Write with an identifiable purpose and for a specific audience.

W09-S2C1-03. Provide sufficient, relevant, and carefully selected details for support.

W09-S2C1-04. Demonstrate a thorough, balanced explanation of the topic.

W09-S2C1-05. Include ideas and details that show original perspective and insights.

W09-S2C2. Organization: Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

W09-S2C2-01. Use a structure that fits the type of writing (e.g., letter format, narrative, play, essay).

W09-S2C2-02. Include a strong beginning or introduction that draws in the reader.

W09-S2C2-03. Place details appropriately to support the main idea.

W09-S2C2-04. Use effective transitions among all elements (sentences, paragraphs, and ideas).

W09-S2C2-05. Employ a variety of paragraphing strategies (e.g., topical, chronological, spatial) appropriate to application and purpose.

W09-S2C2-06. Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.

W09-S2C3. Voice: Voice will vary according to the type of piece, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

W09-S2C3-01. Show awareness of the audience through word choice, style, and an appropriate connection with, or distance from, the audience.

W09-S2C3-02. Convey a sense of identity through originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to topic and type of writing.

W09-S2C3-03. Choose appropriate voice (e.g., formal, informal, academic discourse) for the application.

W09-S2C3-04. Use engaging and expressive language that shows a commitment to the topic.

W09-S2C3-05. Use language appropriate to purpose, topic, and audience.

W09-S2C4. Word Choice: Word choice reflects the writer's use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

W09-S2C4-01. Use accurate, specific, powerful words and phrases that effectively convey the intended message.

W09-S2C4-02. Use vocabulary that is original, varied, and natural.

W09-S2C4-03. Use words that evoke clear images.

W09-S2C4-04. Use literal and figurative language intentionally when appropriate.

W09-S2C4-05. Use cliches only when appropriate to purpose.

W09-S2C5. Sentence Fluency: Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.

W09-S2C5-01. Use a variety of sentence structures (simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex) and lengths to reinforce relationships among ideas and to enhance the flow of the writing.

W09-S2C5-02. Show extensive variation in sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.

W09-S2C5-03. Demonstrate a flow that is natural and powerful when read aloud.

W09-S2C6. Conventions: Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

W09-S2C6-01. Use capitals correctly for:

W09-S2C6-01-a. Proper nouns: holidays; place/regional names; languages; historical events; organizations; academic courses (e.g., algebra/Algebra I); product names

W09-S2C6-01-b. Words used as names (e.g., Grandpa, Aunt Lyn)

W09-S2C6-01-c. Literary titles (book, story, poem, play, song)

W09-S2C6-01-d. Titles

W09-S2C6-01-e. Abbreviations

W09-S2C6-01-f. Proper adjectives (e.g., German shepherd, Chinese restaurant)

W09-S2C6-02. Use commas to correctly punctuate:

W09-S2C6-02-a. Items in a series

W09-S2C6-02-b. Greetings and closings of letters

W09-S2C6-02-c. Introductory words, phrases and clauses

W09-S2C6-02-d. Direct address

W09-S2C6-02-e. Interruptors

W09-S2C6-02-f. Compound sentences

W09-S2C6-02-g. Appositives

W09-S2C6-02-h. Dialogue

W09-S2C6-03. Use quotation marks to punctuate:

W09-S2C6-03-a. Dialogue

W09-S2C6-03-b. Titles

W09-S2C6-03-c. Exact words from sources

W09-S2C6-04. Use underlining or italics to correctly identify titles and vessels (e.g., ships, spacecrafts, planes, trains).

W09-S2C6-05. Use colons to punctuate business letter salutations and sentences introducing lists.

W09-S2C6-06. Use semicolons to punctuate compound and compound-complex sentences when appropriate.

W09-S2C6-07. Use apostrophes to punctuate:

W09-S2C6-07-a. Contractions

W09-S2C6-07-b. Singular possessives

W09-S2C6-07-c. Plural possessives

W09-S2C6-08. Use hyphens, dashes, parentheses, ellipses, and brackets correctly.

W09-S2C6-09. Spell words correctly.

W09-S2C6-10. Use paragraph breaks to reinforce the organizational structure, including dialogue.

W09-S2C6-11. Demonstrate control of grammar and usage in writing:

W09-S2C6-11-a. Parts of speech

W09-S2C6-11-b. Verb forms and tenses

W09-S2C6-11-c. Subject/verb agreement

W09-S2C6-11-d. Pronoun/antecedent agreement

W09-S2C6-11-e. Parallel structure

W09-S2C6-11-f. Comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives

W09-S2C6-11-g. Modifier placement

W09-S2C6-11-h. Homonyms

W09-S2C6-12. Use appropriate format, according to type of writing, to cite sources (e.g., Chicago, APA, MLA, UPI, any other recognized style manual).

AZ.W09-S3. Writing Applications

W09-S3C1. Expressive: Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

W09-S3C1-01. Write a personal narrative that:

W09-S3C1-01-a. Describes a sequence of events, focusing on one incident experienced by the author

W09-S3C1-01-b. Sets scenes and incidents in specific times and places

W09-S3C1-01-c. Describes with specific details the sights, sounds and smells of the scenes

W09-S3C1-01-d. Uses figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification)

W09-S3C2. Expository: Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

W09-S3C2-01. Write an explanatory, multi-paragraph essay that:

W09-S3C2-01-a. Includes background information to establish the thesis (hypothesis, essential question), as appropriate

W09-S3C2-01-b. States a thesis (hypothesis, essential question) with a narrow focus

W09-S3C2-01-c. Includes evidence in support of a thesis (hypothesis, essential question) in the form of details, facts, examples, or reasons

W09-S3C2-01-d. Communicates information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, as appropriate

W09-S3C2-01-e. Attributes sources of information as appropriate

W09-S3C2-01-f. Includes a topic sentence for each body paragraph

W09-S3C2-01-g. Includes relevant factors and variables that need to be considered

W09-S3C2-01-h. Includes visual aids to organize and record information on charts, data tables, maps and graphs, as appropriate

W09-S3C2-01-i. Includes an effective conclusion

W09-S3C3. Functional: Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.

W09-S3C3-01. Write a business letter that:

W09-S3C3-01-a. Presents information purposefully and succinctly to meet the needs of the intended audience

W09-S3C3-01-b. Follows a conventional business letter format (block, modified block, email)

W09-S3C3-02. Address an envelope for correspondence that includes:

W09-S3C3-02-a. An appropriate return address

W09-S3C3-02-b. An appropriate recipient address

W09-S3C4. Persuasive: Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.

W09-S3C4-01. Write a persuasive composition (e.g., business letter, essay) that:

W09-S3C4-01-a. States a position or claim

W09-S3C4-01-b. Presents detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support effective arguments and emotional appeals

W09-S3C4-01-c. Attributes sources of information when appropriate

W09-S3C4-01-d. Structures ideas

W09-S3C4-01-e. Addresses the reader's concerns

W09-S3C5. Literary Response: Literary response is the writer's reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer's interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

W09-S3C5-01. Write a literary analysis that:

W09-S3C5-01-a. Describes the author's use of literary elements (i.e., theme, point of view, characterization, setting, plot)

W09-S3C5-01-b. Explains different elements of figurative language, (i.e., simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, symbolism, allusion, and imagery) in a literary selection

W09-S3C5-01-c. Compares works within a literary genre that deal with similar themes (e.g., compare two short stories or two poems)

W09-S3C6. Research: Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a fin

W09-S3C6-01. Write an essay that:

W09-S3C6-01-a. Incorporates evidence in support of a thesis/claim

W09-S3C6-01-b. Integrates information from two or more pieces of research information

W09-S3C6-01-c. Integrates direct quotes

W09-S3C6-01-d. Cites sources

AZ.LS3. Listening and Speaking

LS.P/D. Students effectively listen and speak in situations that serve different purposes and involve a variety of audiences.

LS-P1. Proficiency: Deliver a polished speech that is organized and well suited to the audience and that uses resource materials to clarify and defend positions

LS-P2. Proficiency: Deliver an impromptu speech that is organized, addresses a particular subject and is tailored to the audience

LS-P3. Proficiency: Deliver oral interpretations of literary or original works

LS-P4. Proficiency: Conduct an interview, taking appropriate notes and summarizing the information learned

LS-P5. Proficiency: Evaluate the effectiveness of informal and formal presentations that use illustrations, statistics, comparisons and analogies

LS-D1. Distinction (Honors): Use clear and concise language when presenting analytical responses to literature, conveying technical information, and explaining complex concepts and procedures

LS-D2. Distinction (Honors): Deliver creative and dramatic interpretations of literary or original works

LS-D3. Distinction (Honors): Communicate information expressively, informatively and analytically through a variety of media to audiences inside or outside of school

LS-D4. Distinction (Honors): Evaluate and improve personal communication skills

AZ.VP4. Viewing and Presenting

VP-P/D. Students use a variety of visual media and resources to gather, evaluate and synthesize information and to communicate with others.

VP-P1. Proficiency: Analyze and evaluate visual media for language, subject matter and visual techniques used to influence attitudes, decision making and cultural perceptions

VP-P2. Proficiency: Plan, organize, develop, produce and evaluate an effective multimedia presentation, using tools such as charts, photographs, maps, tables, posters, transparencies, slides and electronic media

VP-P3. Proficiency: Analyze and evaluate the impact of visual media on the intended audience

VP-D1. Distinction (Honors): Conduct research to evaluate the impact of language, subject matter and visual techniques used by the media

VP-D2. Distinction (Honors): Expand abilities in developing multimedia presentations

VP-D3. Distinction (Honors): Research ethnical issues related to the laws, rules and regulations for the use of media

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