Arizona State Standards for Language Arts: Grade 8

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

AZ.R08-S1. Reading Process

R08-S1C1. Print Concepts: Demonstrate understanding of print concepts.

R08-S1C2. Phonemic Awareness: Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech.

R08-S1C3. Phonics: Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts.

R08-S1C4. Vocabulary: Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.

R08-S1C4-01. Determine the meaning of vocabulary using linguistic roots and affixes (e.g., Greek, Anglo-Saxon, Latin).

R08-S1C4-02. Use context to identify the intended meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., definition, example, restatement, synonym, contrast).

R08-S1C4-03. Use context to identify the meaning of words with multiple meanings (e.g., definition, example, restatement, contrast).

R08-S1C4-04. Determine the meaning of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, hyperbole, and technical language.

R08-S1C4-05. Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available.

R08-S1C5. Fluency: Read fluently.

R08-S1C5-01. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression).

R08-S1C6. Comprehension Strategies: Employ strategies to comprehend text

R08-S1C6-01. Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words).

R08-S1C6-02. Confirm predictions about text for accuracy.

R08-S1C6-03. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.

R08-S1C6-04. Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.

R08-S1C6-05. Connect information and events in text to experience and to related text and sources.

R08-S1C6-06. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, compare and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order, by classification) of text to aid comprehension.

R08-S1C6-07. Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to interpret text.

AZ.R08-S2. Comprehending Literary Text

R08-S2C1. Elements of Literature: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature

R08-S2C1-01. Analyze plot development (e.g., conflict, subplots, parallel episodes) to determine how conflicts are resolved.

R08-S2C1-02. Compare (and contrast) themes across works of prose, poetry, and drama.

R08-S2C1-03. Describe a character, based upon the thoughts, words, and actions of the character, the narrator's description, and other characters.

R08-S2C1-04. Contrast points of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient) in literary text.

R08-S2C1-05. Analyze the relevance of the setting (e.g., time, place, situation) to the mood and tone of the text.

R08-S2C1-06. Draw conclusions about the style, mood, and meaning of literary text based on the author's word choice.

R08-S2C1-07. Analyze the characteristics and structural elements (essential attributes) of a variety of poetic forms (e.g., epic, lyric, sonnet, ballad, elegy, haiku, free verse).

R08-S2C2. Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature: Recognize and apply knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of American, British, and world literature.

R08-S2C2-01. Describe the historical and cultural aspects found in cross-cultural works of literature.

R08-S2C2-02. Identify common structures and stylistic elements in literature, folklore, and myths from a variety of cultures.

AZ.R08-S3. Comprehending Informational Text

R08-S3C1. Expository Text: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.

R08-S3C1-01. Restate the main idea (explicit or implicit) and supporting details in expository text.

R08-S3C1-02. Summarize the main idea (stated or implied) and critical details of expository text, maintaining chronological, sequential, or logical order.

R08-S3C1-03. Distinguish fact from opinion in expository text, providing supporting evidence from text.

R08-S3C1-04. Identify the author's stated or implied purpose(s) for writing expository text.

R08-S3C1-05. Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences, concluding sentences, end notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in

R08-S3C1-06. Locate appropriate print and electronic reference sources (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CD-ROM, website) for a specific purpose. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

R08-S3C1-07. Differentiate between primary and secondary source materials. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

R08-S3C1-08. Interpret graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

R08-S3C1-09. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order, classification schemes) of expository text to aid comprehension.

R08-S3C1-10. Make relevant inferences about expository text, supported by text evidence.

R08-S3C1-11. Compare (and contrast) the central ideas and concepts from selected readings on a specific topic.

R08-S3C1-12. Explain how authors use elements (e.g., language choice, organization) of expository text to achieve their purposes.

R08-S3C2. Functional Text: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.

R08-S3C2-01. Use information from text and text features to determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure.

R08-S3C2-02. Determine what information (e.g., steps in directions, legend, supplies needed, illustrations, diagram, sequence) is extraneous in functional text.

R08-S3C2-03. Interpret details from a variety of functional text (e.g., warranties, product information, technical manuals, instructional manuals, consumer safety publications) for a specific purpose (e.g., to follow directions, to solve problems, to perform procedure

R08-S3C2-04. Evaluate the adequacy of details and facts from functional text to achieve a specific purpose.

R08-S3C3. Persuasive Text: Explain basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the author's purpose and use of persuasive strategies.

R08-S3C3-01. Determine the author's specific purpose for writing the persuasive text.

R08-S3C3-02. Evaluate the effectiveness of the facts used to support an author's argument regarding a particular idea, subject, concept, or object.

R08-S3C3-03. Describe the intended effect of persuasive strategies and propaganda techniques (e.g., bandwagon, peer pressure, repetition, testimonial, transfer, loaded words) that an author uses.

R08-S3C3-04. Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text.

AZ.W08-S1. Writing Process

W08-S1C1. Prewriting: Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

W08-S1C1-01. Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., prior knowledge, discussion with others, printed material or other sources).

W08-S1C1-02. Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece.

W08-S1C1-03. Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

W08-S1C1-04. Establish a central idea appropriate to the type of writing.

W08-S1C1-05. Use organizational strategies (e.g., outlines, charts, tables, graphs, Venn Diagrams, webs, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing.

W08-S1C1-06. Maintain a record (e.g., lists, journals, folders, notebooks) of writing ideas.

W08-S1C1-07. Use time management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

W08-S1C2. Drafting: Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

W08-S1C2-01. Use a prewriting plan to develop a draft with main idea(s) and supporting details.

W08-S1C2-02. Organize writing into a logical sequence that is clear to the audience.

W08-S1C3. Revising: Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

W08-S1C3-01. Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency.

W08-S1C3-02. Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

W08-S1C3-03. Delete irrelevant and/or redundant information from the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

W08-S1C3-04. Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs to clarify the meaning or to enhance the writing style.

W08-S1C3-05. Add transitional words, phrases and/or sentences to clarify meaning or enhance the writing style.

W08-S1C3-06. Use a variety of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound, complex) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.

W08-S1C3-07. Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.

W08-S1C3-08. Use resources and reference materials to select more precise vocabulary.

W08-S1C4. Editing: Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

W08-S1C4-01. Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft.

W08-S1C4-02. Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct conventions.

W08-S1C4-03. Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions.

W08-S1C4-04. Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the draft.

W08-S1C5. Publishing: Publishing includes formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

W08-S1C5-01. Prepare writing in a format (e.g., oral presentation, manuscript, multimedia) appropriate to audience and purpose.

W08-S1C5-02. Use margins and spacing to enhance the final product.

W08-S1C5-03. Use graphics (e.g., drawings, charts, graphs), when applicable, to enhance the final product.

W08-S1C5-04. Write legibly.

AZ.W08-S2. Writing Components

W08-S2C1. Ideas and Content: Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader's attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

W08-S2C1-01. Use clear, focused ideas and details to support the topic.

W08-S2C1-02. Provide content and selected details that are well-suited to audience and purpose.

W08-S2C1-03. Develop a sufficient explanation or exploration of the topic.

W08-S2C1-04. Include ideas and details that show original perspective.

W08-S2C2. Organization: Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

W08-S2C2-01. Use a structure that fits the type or writing (e.g., letter format, narrative, play, essay).

W08-S2C2-02. Develop a strong beginning or introduction that draws in the reader.

W08-S2C2-03. Place details appropriately to support the main idea.

W08-S2C2-04. Include effective transitions among all elements (sentences, paragraphs, ideas).

W08-S2C2-05. Construct paragraphs by arranging sentences with an organizing principle (e.g., to develop a topic, to indicate a chronology).

W08-S2C2-06. Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.

W08-S2C3. Voice: Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

W08-S2C3-01. Show awareness of the audience through word choice, style, and an appropriate connection with, or distance from, the audience.

W08-S2C3-02. Convey a sense of identity through originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to the topic and application.

W08-S2C3-03. Use language appropriate for the topic and purpose.

W08-S2C3-04. Choose appropriate voice (e.g., formal, informal, academic discourse) for the application.

W08-S2C4. Word Choice: Word choice reflects the writer's use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

W08-S2C4-01. Use accurate, specific, powerful words that effectively convey the intended message.

W08-S2C4-02. Use words that consistently support style and type of writing.

W08-S2C4-03. Use vocabulary that is original, varied, and natural.

W08-S2C4-04. Use literal and figurative language where appropriate to purpose.

W08-S2C5. Sentence Fluency: Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.

W08-S2C5-01. Write simple, compound, and complex sentences.

W08-S2C5-02. Create sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.

W08-S2C5-03. Vary sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.

W08-S2C5-04. Use effective and natural dialogue when appropriate.

W08-S2C6. Conventions: Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

W08-S2C6-01. Use capital letters correctly for:

W08-S2C6-01-a. Proper nouns: holidays; product names; languages; historical events; organizations; academic courses (e.g., algebra/Algebra I); place; regional names (e.g., West Coast)

W08-S2C6-01-b. Words used as names (e.g., Grandpa, Aunt Lyn)

W08-S2C6-01-c. Literary titles (book, story, poem, play, song)

W08-S2C6-01-d. Titles

W08-S2C6-01-e. Abbreviations

W08-S2C6-01-f. Proper adjectives

W08-S2C6-02. Use commas to correctly punctuate:

W08-S2C6-02-a. Items in a series

W08-S2C6-02-b. Greetings and closings of letters

W08-S2C6-02-c. Introductory words and clauses

W08-S2C6-02-d. Direct address

W08-S2C6-02-e. Interrupters

W08-S2C6-02-f. Compound sentences

W08-S2C6-02-g. Appositives

W08-S2C6-02-h. Dialogue

W08-S2C6-03. Use quotation marks to punctuate:

W08-S2C6-03-a. Dialogue

W08-S2C6-03-b. Titles of short works (e.g., chapter, story, article, song, poem)

W08-S2C6-03-c. Exact words from sources

W08-S2C6-04. Use italics (in typed copy) and underlining (in handwriting) to indicate titles of longer works (e.g., books, plays, magazines, movies, TV series).

W08-S2C6-05. Use colons to punctuate business letter salutations.

W08-S2C6-06. Use apostrophes to punctuate:

W08-S2C6-06-a. Contractions

W08-S2C6-06-b. Singular possessives

W08-S2C6-06-c. Plural possessives

W08-S2C6-07. Spell high frequency words correctly.

W08-S2C6-08. Use common spelling patterns/generalizations to spell words correctly.

W08-S2C6-09. Use homonyms correctly in context.

W08-S2C6-10. Use resources to spell correctly.

W08-S2C6-11. Use paragraph breaks to indicate an organizational structure.

W08-S2C6-12. Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

W08-S2C6-12-a. Nouns

W08-S2C6-12-b. Action/linking verbs

W08-S2C6-12-c. Personal pronouns

W08-S2C6-12-d. Adjectives

W08-S2C6-12-e. Adverbs

W08-S2C6-12-f. Conjunctions

W08-S2C6-12-g. Prepositions

W08-S2C6-12-h. Interjections

W08-S2C6-13. Use subject/verb agreement in simple, compound, and complex sentences.

AZ.W08-S3. Writing Applications

W08-S3C1. Expressive: Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

W08-S3C1-01. Write a narrative that includes:

W08-S3C1-01-a. An engaging plot based on imagined or real ideas, observations, or memories of an event or experience

W08-S3C1-01-b. Effectively developed characters

W08-S3C1-01-c. A clearly described setting

W08-S3C1-01-d. Dialogue, as appropriate

W08-S3C1-01-e. Figurative language, or descriptive words and phrases to enhance style and tone

W08-S3C1-02. Write in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., poetry, skit) that, according to mode, employ:

W08-S3C1-02-a. Figurative language

W08-S3C1-02-b. Rhythm

W08-S3C1-02-c. Dialogue

W08-S3C1-02-d. Characterization

W08-S3C1-02-e. Plot

W08-S3C1-02-f. Appropriate format

W08-S3C2. Expository: Expository writing includes nonfiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

W08-S3C2-01. Record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, map labels and legends) related to the topic.

W08-S3C2-02. Write a summary based on the information gathered that include(s):

W08-S3C2-02-a. A topic sentence

W08-S3C2-02-b. Supporting details

W08-S3C2-02-c. Relevant information

W08-S3C2-03. Write an explanatory essay that includes:

W08-S3C2-03-a. A thesis statement

W08-S3C2-03-b. Supporting details

W08-S3C2-03-c. Introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs

W08-S3C3. Functional: Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.

W08-S3C3-01. Write a variety of functional texts (e.g., directions, recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels, posters, graphs/tables).

W08-S3C3-03. Write a friendly letter that includes a:

W08-S3C3-03-a. Heading

W08-S3C3-03-b. Salutation

W08-S3C3-03-c. Body

W08-S3C3-03-d. Closing

W08-S3C3-03-e. Signature

W08-S3C3-04. Write a formal letter that follows a conventional business letter format.

W08-S3C3-05. Address an envelope for correspondence that includes:

W08-S3C3-05-a. An appropriate return address

W08-S3C3-05-b. An appropriate recipient address

W08-S3C4. Persuasive: Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.

W08-S3C4-01. Write persuasive text (e.g., essay, paragraph, written communications) that:

W08-S3C4-01-a. Establishes and develops a controlling idea

W08-S3C4-01-b. Supports arguments with detailed evidence

W08-S3C4-01-c. Includes persuasive techniques

W08-S3C4-01-d. Excludes irrelevant information

W08-S3C4-01-e. Attributes sources of information when appropriate

W08-S3C5. Literary Response: Literary response is the writer's reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer's interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

W08-S3C5-01. Write a response to literature that:

W08-S3C5-01-a. Presents several clear ideas

W08-S3C5-01-b. Supports inferences and conclusions with examples from the text, personal experience, references to other works, or reference to non-print media

W08-S3C5-01-c. Relates own ideas to supporting details in a clear and logical manner

W08-S3C5-01-d. Provides support adequate to the literary selection (e.g. short poem vs. novel)

W08-S3C6. Research: Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a fin

W08-S3C6-01. Write a summary of information from sources (e.g. encyclopedias, websites, experts) that includes:

W08-S3C6-01-a. Paraphrasing to convey ideas and details from the source

W08-S3C6-01-b. Main idea(s) and relevant details

W08-S3C6-02. Write an informational report that includes:

W08-S3C6-02-a. A focused topic

W08-S3C6-02-b. Appropriate facts and relevant details

W08-S3C6-02-c. A logical sequence

W08-S3C6-02-d. A concluding statement

W08-S3C6-02-e. A list of sources used

AZ.LS3. Listening and Speaking

LS-E. Students effectively listen and speak in situations that serve different purposes and involve a variety of audiences.

LS-E1. Prepare and deliver an organized speech and effectively convey the message through verbal and nonverbal communications with a specific audience

LS-E2. Prepare and deliver an oral report in a content area and effectively convey the information through verbal and nonverbal communications with a specific audience.

LS-E3. Interpret and respond to questions and evaluate responses both as interviewer and interviewee

LS-E4. Predict, clarify, analyze and critique a speaker's information and point of view

AZ.VP4. Viewing and Presenting

VP-E. Students use a variety of visual media and resources to gather, evaluate and synthesize information and to communicate with others.

VP-E1. Analyze visual media for language, subject matter and visual techniques used to influence opinions, decision making and cultural perceptions

VP-E2. Plan, develop and produce a visual presentation, using a variety of media such as videos, films, newspapers, magazines and computer images

VP-E3. Compare, contrast and establish criteria to evaluate visual media for purpose and effectiveness.

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