Arizona State Standards for Language Arts: Grade 12
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AZ.R12-S1. Reading Process
R12-S1C1. Print Concepts: Demonstrate understanding of print concepts.
R12-S1C2. Phonemic Awareness: Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech.
R12-S1C3. Phonics: Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts.
R12-S1C4. Vocabulary: Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.
R12-S1C4-01. Draw inferences about meaning of new vocabulary, based on knowledge of linguistic roots and affixes (e.g., Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxon).
R12-S1C4-02. Identify the meaning of metaphors based on literary allusions and conceits.
R12-S1C5. Fluency: Read fluently.
R12-S1C5-01. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression).
R12-S1C6. Comprehension Strategies: Employ strategies to comprehend text.
R12-S1C6-01. Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words).
R12-S1C6-02. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.
R12-S1C6-03. Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.
R12-S1C6-04. Connect information and events in text to experience and to related text and sources.
R12-S1C6-05. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, sequence-time order, cause and effect relationships, logical order, classification schemes, problem-solution) of text to aid comprehension.
AZ.R12-S2. Comprehending Literary Text
R12-S2C1. Elements of Literature: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature.
R12-S2C1-01. Evaluate the author's use of literary elements:
R12-S2C1-01-a. Theme (moral, lesson, meaning, message, view or comment on life),
R12-S2C1-01-b. Point of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient),
R12-S2C1-01-c. Characterization (qualities, motives, actions, thoughts, dialogue, development, interactions),
R12-S2C1-01-d. Setting (time of day or year, historical period, place, situation), and
R12-S2C1-01-e. Plot (exposition, major and minor conflicts, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution).
R12-S2C1-02. Interpret figurative language, including, personification, hyperbole, symbolism, allusion, imagery, extended metaphor/conceit, and allegory with emphasis upon how the writer uses language to evoke readers' emotions.
R12-S2C1-03. Analyze a writer's word choice and imagery as a means to appeal to the reader's senses and to set the tone, providing evidence from the text to support the analysis.
R12-S2C1-04. Compare (and contrast) literary texts that express a universal theme, providing textual evidence (e.g., examples, details, quotations) as support for the identified theme.
R12-S2C1-05. Analyze characteristics of sub genres (e.g., satire, parody, allegory) that overlap or cut across the lines of genre classifications such as poetry, novel, drama, short story, essay or editorial.
R12-S2C1-06. Describe the function of dialogue, scene design, soliloquies, asides, and/or character foils in dramatic literature.
R12-S2C1-07. Explain how meaning is enhanced through various features of poetry, including sound (e.g., rhythm, repetition, alliteration, consonance, assonance), structure (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme), graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position).
R12-S2C2. Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature: Recognize and apply knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of American, British, and world literature.
R12-S2C2-01. Describe the historical and cultural aspects found in cross-cultural works of literature.
R12-S2C2-02. Relate literary works and their authors to the seminal ideas of their eras.
R12-S2C2-03. Analyze culturally or historically significant literary works of British and world literature that reflect the major literary periods and traditions.
AZ.R12-S3. Comprehending Informational Text
R12-S3C1. Expository Text: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.
R12-S3C1-01. Critique the effectiveness of the organizational pattern (e.g., logic, focus, consistency, coherence, visual appeal) of expository text.
R12-S3C1-02. Determine the accuracy and truthfulness of one source of information by examining evidence offered in the material itself and by referencing and comparing the evidence with information available from multiple sources.
R12-S3C1-03. Evaluate the evidence used to support the author's perspective contained within both primary and secondary sources. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)
R12-S3C1-04. Compare (and contrast) readings on the same topic, by explaining how authors reach the same or different conclusions based upon differences in evidence, reasoning, assumptions, purposes, beliefs, biases, and argument.
R12-S3C1-05. Identify an author's implicit and stated assumptions about a subject, based upon evidence in the selection.
R12-S3C2. Functional Text: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.
R12-S3C2-01. Analyze how the patterns of organization, hierarchic structures, repetition of key ideas, syntax, and word choice influence the clarity and understandability of functional text.
R12-S3C2-02. Evaluate the logic within functional text.
R12-S3C3. Persuasive Text: Explain basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the author's purpose and use of persuasive strategies.
R12-S3C3-01. Evaluate the merit of an argument, action, or policy by citing evidence offered in the material itself and by comparing the evidence with information available in other sources.
R12-S3C3-02. Evaluate the effectiveness of an author's use of rhetorical devices in a persuasive argument.
R12-S3C3-03. Identify unsupported inferences or fallacious reasoning in arguments advanced in persuasive text.
R12-S3C3-04. Evaluate persuasive sources for adherence to ethics.
AZ.W12-S1. Writing Process
W12-S1C1. Prewriting: Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.
W12-S1C1-01. Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, notes and logs, graphic organizers, record of writing ideas and discussion, printed material or other sources).
W12-S1C1-02. Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece.
W12-S1C1-03. Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.
W12-S1C1-04. Establish a controlling idea appropriate to the type of writing.
W12-S1C1-05. Use organizational strategies (e.g., outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing.
W12-S1C1-06. Maintain a record (e.g., lists, journals, folders, notebooks) of writing ideas.
W12-S1C1-07. Use time management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.
W12-S1C2. Drafting: Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.
W12-S1C2-01. Use a prewriting plan to develop the main idea(s) with supporting details.
W12-S1C2-02. Sequence ideas into a cohesive, meaningful order.
W12-S1C3. Revising: Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)
W12-S1C3-01. Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency.
W12-S1C3-02. Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.
W12-S1C3-03. Delete irrelevant and/or redundant information from the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.
W12-S1C3-04. Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs in the draft in order to clarify the meaning or to enhance the writing style.
W12-S1C3-05. Add transitional words and phrases to the draft in order to clarify meaning or enhance the writing style.
W12-S1C3-06. Use a variety of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound, complex) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.
W12-S1C3-07. Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.
W12-S1C3-08. Use resources and reference materials (e.g., thesaurus, dictionary) to select more effective and precise language.
W12-S1C4. Editing: Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.
W12-S1C4-01. Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft.
W12-S1C4-02. Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct conventions.
W12-S1C4-03. Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions.
W12-S1C4-04. Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the draft.
W12-S1C5. Publishing: Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.
W12-S1C5-01. Prepare writing that follows a format appropriate for the purpose (e.g., for display, sharing with others, submitting to a publication).
W12-S1C5-02. Include such techniques as principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns) and graphics (e.g., drawings, charts, graphs), when applicable, to enhance the final product.
W12-S1C5-03. Write legibly.
AZ.W12-S2. Writing Elements
W12-S2C1. Ideas and Content: Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader's attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.
W12-S2C1-01. Maintain a clear, narrow focus to support the topic.
W12-S2C1-02. Write with an identifiable purpose and for a specific audience.
W12-S2C1-03. Provide sufficient, relevant, and carefully selected details for support.
W12-S2C1-04. Demonstrate a thorough, balanced explanation of the topic.
W12-S2C1-05. Include ideas and details that show original perspective and insights.
W12-S2C2. Organization: Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.
W12-S2C2-01. Use a structure that fits the type of writing (e.g., letter format, narrative, play, essay).
W12-S2C2-02. Include a strong beginning or introduction that draws in the reader.
W12-S2C2-03. Place details appropriately to support the main idea.
W12-S2C2-04. Use effective transitions among all elements (sentences, paragraphs, and ideas).
W12-S2C2-05. Employ a variety of paragraphing strategies (e.g., topical, chronological, spatial) appropriate to application and purpose.
W12-S2C2-06. Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.
W12-S2C3. Voice: Voice will vary according to the type of piece, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.
W12-S2C3-01. Show awareness of the audience through word choice, style, and an appropriate connection with, or distance from, the audience.
W12-S2C3-02. Convey a sense of identity through originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to topic and type of writing.
W12-S2C3-03. Choose appropriate voice (e.g., formal, informal, academic discourse) for the application.
W12-S2C3-04. Use engaging and expressive language that shows a commitment to the topic.
W12-S2C3-05. Use language appropriate to purpose, topic, and audience.
W12-S2C4. Word Choice: Word choice reflects the writer's use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.
W12-S2C4-01. Use accurate, specific, powerful words and phrases that effectively convey the intended message.
W12-S2C4-02. Use vocabulary that is original, varied, and natural.
W12-S2C4-03. Use words that evoke clear images.
W12-S2C4-04. Use literal and figurative language intentionally when appropriate.
W12-S2C4-05. Use cliches only when appropriate to purpose.
W12-S2C5. Sentence Fluency: Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
W12-S2C5-01. Use a variety of sentence structures (simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex) and lengths to reinforce relationships among ideas and to enhance the flow of the writing.
W12-S2C5-02. Show extensive variation in sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.
W12-S2C5-03. Demonstrate a flow that is natural and powerful when read aloud.
W12-S2C6. Conventions: Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.
W12-S2C6-01. Use capitals correctly for:
W12-S2C6-01-a. Proper nouns: holidays; place/regional names; languages; historical events; organizations; academic courses (e.g., algebra/Algebra I); product names
W12-S2C6-01-b. Words used as names (e.g., Grandpa, Aunt Lyn)
W12-S2C6-01-c. Literary titles (book, story, poem, play, song)
W12-S2C6-01-f. Proper adjectives (e.g., German shepherd, Chinese restaurant)
W12-S2C6-02. Use commas to correctly punctuate:
W12-S2C6-02-a. Items in a series
W12-S2C6-02-b. Greetings and closings of letters
W12-S2C6-02-c. Introductory words, phrases and clauses
W12-S2C6-02-d. Direct address
W12-S2C6-02-f. Compound sentences
W12-S2C6-03. Use quotation marks to punctuate:
W12-S2C6-03-c. Exact words from sources
W12-S2C6-04. Use underlining or italics to correctly identify titles and vessels (e.g., ships, spacecrafts, planes, trains).
W12-S2C6-05. Use colons to punctuate business letter salutations and sentences introducing lists.
W12-S2C6-06. Use semicolons to punctuate compound and compound-complex sentences when appropriate.
W12-S2C6-07. Use apostrophes to punctuate:
W12-S2C6-07-b. Singular possessives
W12-S2C6-07-c. Plural possessives
W12-S2C6-08. Use hyphens, dashes, parentheses, ellipses, and brackets correctly.
W12-S2C6-09. Spell words correctly.
W12-S2C6-10. Use paragraph breaks to reinforce the organizational structure, including dialogue.
W12-S2C6-11. Demonstrate control of grammar and usage in writing:
W12-S2C6-11-a. Parts of speech
W12-S2C6-11-b. Verb forms and tenses
W12-S2C6-11-c. Subject/verb agreement
W12-S2C6-11-d. Pronoun/antecedent agreement
W12-S2C6-11-e. Parallel structure
W12-S2C6-11-f. Comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives
W12-S2C6-11-g. Modifier placement
W12-S2C6-12. Use appropriate format, according to type of writing, to cite sources (e.g., Chicago, APA, MLA, UPI, any other recognized style manual).
AZ.W12-S3. Writing Applications
W12-S3C1. Expressive: Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.
W12-S3C1-01. Write in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., poetry, fiction, autobiography, narrative, and/or drama) that:
W12-S3C1-01-a. Use voice and style appropriate to audience and purpose
W12-S3C1-01-b. Organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support
W12-S3C1-01-c. Employ literary devices (e.g., irony, conceit, flashback, foreshadowing, symbolism, allusion) to enhance style and voice
W12-S3C2. Expository: Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.
W12-S3C2-01. Write a multi-paragraph essay (e.g., analysis, deduction/induction, problem/solution, extended definition) that:
W12-S3C2-01-a. Includes background information to set up the thesis (hypothesis, essential question), as appropriate
W12-S3C2-01-b. States a thesis (hypothesis, essential question) with a narrow focus
W12-S3C2-01-c. Includes evidence in support of a thesis (hypothesis, essential question) in the form of details, facts, examples, or reasons
W12-S3C2-01-d. Communicates information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, as appropriate
W12-S3C2-01-e. Attributes sources of information as appropriate
W12-S3C2-01-f. Includes a topic sentence for each body paragraph
W12-S3C2-01-g. Includes relevant factors and variables that need to be considered
W12-S3C2-01-h. Includes visual aids to organize and record information on charts, data tables, maps and graphs, as appropriate
W12-S3C2-01-i. Includes an effective conclusion
W12-S3C3. Functional: Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
W12-S3C3-01. Write a work-related document (e.g., resume, application essay) that:
W12-S3C3-01-a. Presents information purposefully and succinctly to meet the needs of the intended audience
W12-S3C3-01-b. Follows a conventional format
W12-S3C4. Persuasive: Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.
W12-S3C4-01. Write a persuasive composition (e.g. speech, editorial, letter to the editor, public service announcement) that:
W12-S3C4-01-a. States a position or claim
W12-S3C4-01-b. Presents detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support effective arguments and emotional appeals
W12-S3C4-01-c. Attributes sources of information when appropriate
W12-S3C4-01-d. Structures ideas
W12-S3C4-01-e. Acknowledges and refutes opposing arguments
W12-S3C5. Literary Response: Literary response is the writer's reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer's interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature.
W12-S3C5-01. Write literary analyses that:
W12-S3C5-01-a. Evaluates the author's use of literary elements (i.e., theme, point of view, characterization, setting, plot)
W12-S3C5-01-b. Interprets figurative language (i.e., personification, hyperbole, symbolism, allusion, imagery, extended metaphor/conceit, and allegory) with emphasis upon how the writer uses language to evoke readers' emotions
W12-S3C5-01-c. Explains how meaning is enhanced through various features of poetry, including sound (e.g., rhythm, repetition, alliteration, consonance, assonance), structure (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme), graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position)
W12-S3C5-01-d. Analyzes a writer's word choice and imagery as a means to appeal to the reader's senses and to set the tone, providing evidence from the text to support the analysis,
W12-S3C5-01-e. Describes the function of dialogue, scene design, soliloquies, asides, and/or character foils in dramatic literature
W12-S3C5-01-f. Compares literary texts that express a universal theme, providing textual evidence (e.g., examples, details, quotations) as support for the identified theme
W12-S3C5-01-g. Analyzes characteristics of subgenres (e.g., satire, parody, allegory) that overlap or cut across the lines of genre classifications such as poetry, novel, drama, short story, essay or editorial
W12-S3C6. Research: Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a fin
W12-S3C6-01. Write a research product that:
W12-S3C6-01-a. Incorporates evidence in support of a thesis or claim
W12-S3C6-01-b. Integrates information and ideas from multiple primary and secondary sources
W12-S3C6-01-c. Makes distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas
W12-S3C6-01-d. Includes visual aids to organize and record information on charts, data tables, maps and graphs, as appropriate
W12-S3C6-01-e. Integrates direct quotes
W12-S3C6-01-f. Uses internal citations
W12-S3C6-01-g. Includes a works cited, bibliography, or reference page
AZ.LS3. Listening and Speaking
LS.P/D. Students effectively listen and speak in situations that serve different purposes and involve a variety of audiences.
LS-P1. Proficiency: Deliver a polished speech that is organized and well suited to the audience and that uses resource materials to clarify and defend positions
LS-P2. Proficiency: Deliver an impromptu speech that is organized, addresses a particular subject and is tailored to the audience
LS-P3. Proficiency: Deliver oral interpretations of literary or original works
LS-P4. Proficiency: Conduct an interview, taking appropriate notes and summarizing the information learned
LS-P5. Proficiency: Evaluate the effectiveness of informal and formal presentations that use illustrations, statistics, comparisons and analogies
LS-D1. Distinction (Honors): Use clear and concise language when presenting analytical responses to literature, conveying technical information, and explaining complex concepts and procedures
LS-D2. Distinction (Honors): Deliver creative and dramatic interpretations of literary or original works
LS-D3. Distinction (Honors): Communicate information expressively, informatively and analytically through a variety of media to audiences inside or outside of school
LS-D4. Distinction (Honors): Evaluate and improve personal communication skills
AZ.VP4. Viewing and Presenting
VP-P/D. Students use a variety of visual media and resources to gather, evaluate and synthesize information and to communicate with others.
VP-P1. Proficiency: Analyze and evaluate visual media for language, subject matter and visual techniques used to influence attitudes, decision making and cultural perceptions
VP-P2. Proficiency: Plan, organize, develop, produce and evaluate an effective multimedia presentation, using tools such as charts, photographs, maps, tables, posters, transparencies, slides and electronic media
VP-P3. Proficiency: Analyze and evaluate the impact of visual media on the intended audience
VP-D1. Distinction (Honors): Conduct research to evaluate the impact of language, subject matter and visual techniques used by the media
VP-D2. Distinction (Honors): Expand abilities in developing multimedia presentations
VP-D3. Distinction (Honors): Research ethnical issues related to the laws, rules and regulations for the use of media