Arkansas State Standards for Language Arts: Grade 12

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AR.1. Oral and Visual Communication: Speaking: Students shall demonstrate effective oral communication skills to express ideas and to present information.

OV.1.12.1. Speaking to share understanding and information: Prepare and participate in such structured discussions as mock trials and other discussions or presentations outside the classroom.

OV.1.12.2. Speaking to share understanding and information: Present a formal multi-media presentation.

OV.1.12.3. Speaking for literary response, expression and analysis: Participate in a variety of such speaking activities as scenes from a play, monologues, memorization of lines, character analysis, literary reviews, excerpts from famous speeches, and comparison of genre across eras.

AR.2. Oral and Visual Communication: Listening: Students shall demonstrate effective listening skills in formal and informal settings.

OV.2.12.1. Listening for information, interpretation, critical analysis, and evaluation: Demonstrate critical, empathetic, and reflective listening to interpret, respond to, and evaluate speakers' messages.

OV.2.12.2. Listening for information, interpretation, critical analysis, and evaluation: Identify organizational patterns appropriate to diverse situations, such as interviews, debates, and conversations.

OV.2.12.3. Listening for information, interpretation, critical analysis, and evaluation: Identify barriers to listening and generate methods to overcome them .

OV.2.12.4. Listening for information, interpretation, critical analysis, and evaluation: Critique the clarity, accuracy, relevance, organization of evidence, and effectiveness of delivery of a presentation.

OV.2.12.5. Listening for information, interpretation, critical analysis, and evaluation: Critique relationships among purpose, audience, and content of presentations.

OV.2.12.6. Listening for information, interpretation, critical analysis, and evaluation: Demonstrate attentive, reflective, critical, and empathetic listening skills to respond to and interpret speaker's message.

AR.3. Oral and Visual Communication: Media Literacy: Students shall demonstrate knowledge and understanding of media as a mode of communication.

OV.3.12.1. Analyzing media: Analyze techniques used in political and product ads.

OV.3.12.2. Evaluating media credibility: Use appropriate criteria to evaluate the impact of media on public opinion, trends, and beliefs.

AR.4. Writing: Process: Students shall employ a wide range of strategies as they write, using the writing process appropriately.

W.4.12.1. Prewriting: Apply appropriate prewriting strategies to address purpose and audience with emphasis on persuasion.

W.4.12.2. Drafting: Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing.

W.4.12.3. Drafting: Write clear and varied sentences.

W.4.12.4. Drafting: Elaborate ideas clearly and accurately through word choice, vivid description, and selected information.

W.4.12.5. Drafting: Adapt content vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

W.4.12.6. Drafting: Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression with appropriate transition.

W.4.12.7. Revising: Revise content of writing for central idea, elaboration, unity, and organization.

W.4.12.8. Revising: Revise style of writing for selected vocabulary, selected information, sentence variety, tone, and voice.

W.4.12.9. Revising: Revise sentence formation in writing for completeness, coordination, subordination, standard word order, and absence of fused sentences.

W.4.12.10. Revising: Evaluate how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed.

W.4.12.11. Editing: Apply grammatical conventions to edit for standard inflections, agreement, word meaning, and conventions.

W.4.12.12. Editing: Apply grammatical conventions for capitalization, punctuation, formatting, and spelling.

W.4.12.13. Publishing: Refine selected pieces frequently to publish for intended audiences and purposes.

W.4.12.14. Publishing: Maintain a writing portfolio that exhibits growth and reflection in the progress of meeting goals and expectations.

W.4.12.15. Publishing: Use available technology for all aspects of the writing process.

AR.5. Writing: Purposes, Topics, Forms, and Audiences: Students shall demonstrate competency in writing for a variety of purposes, topics and audiences employing a wide range of forms.

W.5.12.1. Purposes and Audiences: Use elements of discourse effectively when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.

W.5.12.2. Topics and Forms: Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports, that: assemble and convey evidence in support of the thesis; make distinctions between the relative value and significance of data, facts and ideas; employ visual aids when appropriate.

W.5.12.3. Topics and Forms: Write using rhetorical strategies with special emphasis on compare/contrast, argumentation/persuasion, cause/effect, and classification.

W.5.12.4. Topics and Forms: Write persuasive compositions that: structure ideas and arguments; clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence; use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions; address readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

W.5.12.5. Topics and Forms: Write a variety of letters, including cover letters and letters of recommendation, that: follow a conventional format; address the intended audience; provide clear, purposeful information; use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style.

W.5.12.6. Topics and Forms: Write poems using a range of poetic techniques, forms and figurative language, emphasizing sonnets.

W.5.12.7. Topics and Forms: Write responses to literature that: articulate the significant ideas of literary works; support important ideas and viewpoints; analyze and evaluate the author's use of stylistic devices; evaluate the impact of ambiguities, nuances, and complexities using evidence from the text.

W.5.12.8. Topics and Forms: Write on demand to a specified prompt within a given time frame.

W.5.12.9. Topics and Forms: Write across the curriculum.

AR.6. Writing: Conventions: Students shall apply knowledge of Standard English conventions in written work.

W.6.12.1. Sentence Formation: Use a variety of sentence structures, types, and lengths for effect in writing.

W.6.12.2. Usage: Apply usage rules appropriately in all formal writing.

W.6.12.3. Spelling: Apply conventional spelling to all pieces.

W.6.12.4. Capitalization: Apply conventional rules of capitalization in writing.

W.6.12.5. Punctuation: Apply the punctuation rules appropriately in writing.

AR.7. Writing: Craftsmanship: Students shall develop personal style and voice as they approach the craftsmanship of writing.

W.7.12.1. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Use figurative language effectively with emphasis on extended metaphor .

W.7.12.2. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Use a variety of sentence structures, types, and lengths to contribute to fluency and interest.

W.7.12.3. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Apply such elements of discourse as purpose, speaker, audience, and form when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments .

W.7.12.4. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Demonstrate organization, unity, and coherence by using implied transitions and sequencing .

W.7.12.5. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Use extension and multi-level elaboration to develop an idea emphasizing models from professional writing.

W.7.12.6. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Balance concrete and commentary information within a piece.

W.7.12.7. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Use precise word choices that convey specific meaning.

W.7.12.8. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Personalize writing to convey voice in formal and informal pieces .

W.7.12.9. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Use point of view, characterization, style, and related elements for specific rhetorical (communication) and aesthetic (artistic) purposes .

W.7.12.10. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and persuasive way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

W.7.12.11. Purposefully shaping and controlling language: Critique professional and peer writing for consistency of style.

AR.9. Reading: Comprehension: Students shall apply a variety of strategies to read and comprehend printed material.

R.9.12.1. Literal and inferential understanding: Connect own background knowledge to recognize and analyze personal biases brought to a text with an emphasis on gender and national origin .

R.9.12.2. Literal and inferential understanding: Challenge or defend use of writer's diction and style.

R.9.12.3. Literal and inferential understanding: Evaluate and select individualized strategies to support active reading and engagement.

R.9.12.4. Literal and inferential understanding: Analyze and evaluate how works of a given period reflect author's background, historical events, and cultural influences.

R.9.12.5. Literal and inferential understanding: Draw inferences from multiple selections and author's (including conclusions, generalizations, and predictions) and support them with text evidence .

R.9.12.6. Literal and inferential understanding: Suspend personal biases in approaching texts.

R.9.12.7. Summary and generalization: Summarize and paraphrase complex structures in informational and literary texts, including relationships among concepts and details.

R.9.12.8. Analysis and evaluation: Investigate both the features and the rhetorical devices of different policy statements, speeches, debates, or other public documents and the ways in which authors use those features and devices.

R.9.12.9. Analysis and evaluation: Evaluate the effect of point of view on elements of text (e.g., tone, theme, and purpose, etc.).

R.9.12.10. Analysis and evaluation: Challenge or defend author's use of fallacies .

R.9.12.11. Analysis and evaluation: Defend and justify a position using concepts gained from reading.

R.9.12.12. Analysis and evaluation: Analyze and evaluate the effects of rhetorical devices.

R.9.12.13. Analysis and evaluation: Analyze and evaluate the author's use of tone, diction, and syntax such as anaphora and inversion .

R.9.12.14. Analysis and evaluation: Evaluate the credibility of information sources, including how the writer's motivation affects that credibility.

AR.10. Reading: Variety of Text: Students shall read, examine, and respond to a wide range of texts.

R.10.12.1. Practical Texts: Read across the curriculum a variety of such practical texts as advertisements, warranties, manuals, job and career descriptions, applications, college catalogs, financial documents, and contracts.

R.10.12.2. Practical Texts: Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information in practical texts.

R.10.12.3. Poetry: Read a variety of poetry, including free and formal verse and narrative and lyric poetry .

R.10.12.4. Poetry: Evaluate the effectiveness of an author's use of poetic conventions and structures, including line, stanza, imagery, rhythm, rhyme, and sound devices.

R.10.12.5. Poetry: Analyze and compare characteristics of formal verse, including sonnets, sestinas, and villanelles.

R.10.12.6. Poetry: Evaluate traditional and contemporary works of poets from many cultures.

R.10.12.7. Poetry: Evaluate the effectiveness of the author's use of persona.

R.10.12.8. Poetry: Evaluate techniques poets use to evoke emotion in a reader.

R.10.12.9. Poetry: Evaluate the effectiveness of word choice, tone, and voice.

R.10.12.10. Poetry: Paraphrase and interpret to find the meaning of selected poems, emphasizing multiple selections and authors.

R.10.12.11. Drama: Read and critique dramatic selections from a variety of authors.

R.10.12.12. Drama: Evaluate stage, film, or television adaptations and interpretations of a drama .

R.10.12.13. Drama: Evaluate the effectiveness of an author's use of dramatic conventions .

R.10.12.14. Drama: Analyze and evaluate the most effective elements of selected plays.

R.10.12.15. Drama: Compare and contrast ways in which character, scene, dialogue, and staging contribute to the theme and the dramatic effect.

R.10.12.16. Drama: Compare and contrast tragic heroes from various literary eras.

R.10.12.17. Literary and Content Prose: Read a variety of literary and content prose .

R.10.12.18. Literary and Content Prose: Evaluate the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a written work.

R.10.12.19. Literary and Content Prose: Compare and contrast the literary contributions of various cultures.

R.10.12.20. Literary and Content Prose: Evaluate an author's use of literary devices.

R.10.12.21. Literary and Content Prose: Evaluate the impact of diction, imagery, style, and figurative language on tone, mood, and theme using literary terminology.

R.10.12.22. Literary and Content Prose: Evaluate the significance of literary elements in a work.

R.10.12.23. Literary and Content Prose: Evaluate the impact of irony on text.

R.10.12.24. Literary and Content Prose: Analyze several of an author's works that deal with a single issue.

R.10.12.25. Evaluate the credibility of an author's argument or defense.

AR.11. Reading: Vocabulary, Word Study, and Fluency: Students shall acquire and apply skills in vocabulary development and word analysis to be able to read fluently.

R.11.12.1. Word study and vocabulary: Recognize and apply specialized vocabulary.

R.11.12.2. Word study and vocabulary: Analyze Greek, Latin, Anglo-Saxon and meaning and draw inferences .

R.11.12.3. Word study and vocabulary: Use reference materials including glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to facilitate and extend learning .

R.11.12.4. Word study and vocabulary: Interpret the connotative power of words.

AR.12. Inquiring/Researching: Research/Inquiry Process: Students shall engage in inquiry and research to address questions, to make judgments about credibility, and to communicate findings in ways that suit the purpose and audience.

IR.12.12.1. Accessing information: Formulate original, open-ended questions to explore, narrow, and select a topic .

IR.12.12.2. Accessing information: Establish a focus for research and design a research plan to defend a position or prove/disprove a hypothesis.

IR.12.12.3. Accessing information: Access multiple sources using a variety of research tools with increasing proficiency.

IR.12.12.4. Evaluating credibility and identifying relevant information: Evaluate the credibility of authors and reliability of sources.

IR.12.12.5. Evaluating credibility and identifying relevant information: Evaluate ways to verify the accuracy and usefulness of information.

IR.12.12.6. Evaluating credibility and identifying relevant information: Synthesize information from multiple primary and secondary sources.

IR.12.12.7. Evaluating credibility and identifying relevant information: Demonstrate awareness of plagiarism laws while editing written work and avoid plagiarism.

IR.12.12.8. Interpreting and presenting information: Organize information and use a style manual such as MLA or APA to create: Note cards or other note taking forms; Formal outline; Works cited page or resource sheet; Thesis statement; Parenthetical citations within text; Title page or style heading.

IR.12.12.9. Interpreting and presenting information: Summarize, paraphrase, and/or quote relevant information.

IR.12.12.10. Interpreting and presenting information: Create a formal research paper.

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