Colorado State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 11

Currently Perma-Bound only has suggested titles for grades K-8 in the Science and Social Studies areas. We are working on expanding this.

CO.1. History

1.1. Students know and understand what government is and what purpose it serves. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.1.1. Explaining how purposes of government impact the individual and society

1.1.2. Analyzing how different forms of government execute the purposes of government

1.1.3. Analyzing and knowing how different forms of government impact the individual (for example, personal freedom and political liberty).

1.2. The key concepts of continuity and change, cause and effect, complexity, unity and diversity over time. Students can:

1.2.1. Comparing and contrasting limited and unlimited government (for example, constitutional republic, authoritarian, and totalitarian government)

1.2.2. Comparing how constitutions promote the principles of a political system and provide the basis for government

1.2.3. Describing how constitutions and the rule of law may limit government

1.3. The significance of ideas as powerful forces throughout history. Students can:

1.3.1. Analyzing the political thought that influenced the development of the United States Constitution (for example, social contract theory, the major ideas of republicanism, natural rights philosophy)

1.3.2. Evaluating the Federalist and Anti-Federalist positions in the context of contemporary United States society

1.3.3. Explaining how the United States Constitution is a vehicle for continuity and preserving liberty, yet allows for change

1.3.4. Explaining the conditions which are necessary for the United States constitutional government to operate effectively (for example, the acceptance of or commitment to common constitutional principles).

1.4. Students know the distinctive characteristics of the political culture of the United States. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.4.1. Analyzing how amendments, laws, and landmark decisions have helped fulfill the promise of the Constitution

1.4.2. Analyzing the relationship between the Constitution and the political culture in which it exists

1.4.3. Developing, evaluating, and defending positions about the importance of adhering to constitutional principles in managing conflicts over diverse viewpoints (for example, taxation, civil rights, and balance of power)

1.4.4. Developing, evaluating, and defending positions on the effectiveness of the Constitution and Bill of Rights in protecting the rights of all citizens

1.5. Students know the fundamental democratic principles inherent in the United States concept of a constitutional democratic republic. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.5.1. Developing and defending positions on issues in which traditional principles of representative government are in conflict, using historical and contemporary examples (for example, conflicts between liberty and equality, between individual rights and the common good)

1.5.2. Developing, evaluating, and defending positions about historical and contemporary efforts to act according to constitutional principles (for example, abolition movement, desegregation of schools, civil rights movements)

1.5.3. Developing, evaluating, and defending positions on contemporary issues on the balance between individual rights and the common good.

CO.2. Geography

2.1. Use different types of maps and geographic tools to analyze features on Earth to investigate and solve geographic questions . Students can:

2.1.1. Analyzing how the organization of the local, state, and national governments influences the formulation and implementation of policy (for example, weak versus strong mayoral system, unicameral versus bicameral legislature, legislative approval of presidential appointments)

2.1.2. Explaining why states have their own constitutions and the relationship of state constitutions to the federal constitution (for example, the 'roots' of colonial assemblies, strong state governments)

2.1.3. Evaluating the tension between citizens' desire for government services and benefits, and the costs associated with providing those

2.1.4. Describing major provisions of the Colorado Constitution.

2.2. Students know how power, authority, and responsibility are distributed, shared, and limited through federalism as established by the United States Constitution. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.2.1. Analyzing how the design of the United States Constitution balances and checks to prevent the abuse of power (for example, Marbury v. Madison, Supreme Court packing under New Deal, Watergate)

2.2.2. Developing, evaluating, and defending positions on historical and contemporary conflicts over the respective roles, balance of power, and responsibility between local, state, and federal government.

2.3. The interconnected nature of the world, its people and places. Students can:

2.3.1. Explaining the significance of historical and contemporary events to illustrate the central place of the rule of law (for example, United States Supreme Court cases such as United States v. Nixon, Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v. Wainwright)

2.3.2. Analyzing, using historical and contemporary examples, the meaning and significance of the idea of equal protection of laws for all persons (for example, Brown v. Board of Education, University of California v. Bakke)

2.3.3. Explaining how the state and federal courts' power of judicial review reflects the United States constitutional government (for example, Marbury v. Madison)

2.3.4. Developing, evaluating and defending positions on current issues regarding judicial protection of individual rights (for example, explaining the basic concept of due process protections, including presumption of innocence, speedy and public trials, right to counsel, trial by jury, right of appeal).

2.4. Students know how public policy is developed at the local, state, and national levels. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.4.1. Evaluating the contemporary roles of voters, political parties, associations, and groups in local, state, and national politics (for example, political action committees, interest groups, think tanks, unions, professional organizations)

2.4.2. Analyzing a current public policy issue at local, state, or national levels and evaluating the alternative positions (for example, welfare reform)

2.4.3. Explaining why conflicts within traditional principles of representative government may make agreement on issues of public policy difficult (for example, affirmative action, gun control, environmental protection, capital punishment, growth, welfare reform)

2.4.4. Developing, evaluating, and defending positions about the role of media and public opinion in United States politics (for example, ways that government and media influence public opinion and the behavior of public officials).

CO.3. Civics: Students know the political relationship of the United States and its citizens to other nations and to world affairs.

3.1. Students know how and why governments and nongovernmental agencies around the world interact politically. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.1.1. Identifying and analyzing the effectiveness of solutions used to resolve an international problem or concern by governmental and nongovernmental agencies (for example, United Nations attempts to resolve political conflicts, attempts to deal with world-wide refugee problems, terrorism, attempts to protect the world's environment).

3.2. Students understand how the United States government develops foreign policy. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.2.1. Analyzing how and why domestic politics may impose constraints or obligations on the ways in which the United States acts in the world, giving current political examples (for example, understanding treaties and their relationship to the Constitution)

3.2.2. Identifying and analyzing issues concerning the national interests of the United States.

3.3. Students understand the domestic and foreign policy influence the United States has on other nations and how the actions of other nations influence politics and society of the United States. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.3.1. Evaluating the impact of significant international developments on the United States and other nations (for example, impact of land mines)

3.3.2. Describing the impact abroad of the principles of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution

3.3.3. Giving examples of how foreign policy decisions made by foreign countries affect the United States

3.3.4. Giving examples of diplomatic strategies used by the United States government when interacting on significant international issues (for example, humanitarian and development aid, economic sanctions)

3.3.5. Evaluating current international issues in which the foreign policy of the United States has played a significant role (for example, world trade negotiations - GATT agreements)

3.3.6. Identifying opportunities for citizens of the United States to participate in the resolution of international problems and concerns (for example, citizens pressure to release the remains of POWs from Vietnam).

CO.4. Civics

4.1. Students know what citizenship is. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.1.1. Explaining the rights and obligations of United States citizens

4.1.2. Comparing and analyzing the rights and responsibilities of citizens and non-citizens in the United States

4.1.3. Evaluating the usefulness of the following characteristics of an effective citizen to participate effectively in public life (for example, civic virtue, common courtesy, respect for person and property, civic and personal responsibility, and honest and fair dealings).

4.2. Students know how citizens can fulfill their responsibilities for preserving the constitutional republic. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.2.1. Evaluating whether and when their obligations as citizens require that their personal desires and interests be balanced with the public good

4.2.2. Evaluating what to do when individual beliefs or constitutional principles are in conflict

4.2.3. Identifying and evaluating how the characteristics of an effective citizen promote the preservation of the republic.

4.3. Analyze how public policy - domestic and foreign - is developed at the local, state, and national levels and compare how policy-making occurs in other forms of government. Students can:

4.3.1. Identifying the scope and limits of rights (for example, all rights have limits)

4.3.2. Explaining considerations and criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights (for example, clear and present danger, national security, public safety)

4.3.3. Evaluating different positions on contemporary issues that involve rights of citizens (for example, restricted membership in organizations, sexual harassment, school prayer, refusal of medical care)

4.3.4. Describing and evaluating historical or current examples of citizen movements to ensure rights of all citizens.

4.4. Students know how citizens can participate in civic life. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.4.1. Evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of political participation (for example, voting, attending political and governmental meetings, contacting public officials)

4.4.2. Describing various ways one can exercise leadership and participate in public affairs (for example, campaigning)

4.4.3. Demonstrating understanding of strategies for monitoring and influencing current public policy (for example, writing to a public official, writing letters to the editor, working with advocacy groups, working on a political campaign or using technology to monitor and influence legislation)

4.4.4. Describing the role of civil disobedience.

CO.1. Economics: Students understand that because of the condition of scarcity, decisions must be made about the use of scarce resources.

1.1. Students know that economic choices are made because resources are scarce and that the act of making economic choices imposes opportunity costs. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.1.1. Explaining how economic choices made by individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies impose opportunity costs on societies as a whole

1.1.2. Analyzing the relationship between economic goals and the allocation of scarce resources.

1.2. Students understand that economic incentives influence the use of scarce human, capital, and natural resources. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.2.1. Analyzing how economic incentives influence the economic choices made by individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies to use scarce human, capital, and natural resources more efficiently to meet their economic goals.

1.3. Students understand that resources can be used in many ways and understand the costs of alternative uses. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.3.1. Explaining how changes in the investment of resources and specialization by individual, households, businesses, governments, and societies affect productivity (for example, a firm's investment in training enables its individual workers to produce more.)

1.3.2. Analyzing the costs of alternative uses of resources with respect to present and future productivity

1.3.3. Analyzing how the use of technology and the investment in human and physical capital can affect long-range productivity

1.3.4. Identifying personal investment strategies for different economic goals, such as retirement, a child's education, or saving for a new house (students should be familiar with the risk-reward level of various types of investments, how risk is matched with the time horizon of the need for the funds invested, and how mutual funds work).

CO.2. Economics: Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services.

2.1. Students understand that different economic systems employ different means to produce, distribute, and exchange goods and services. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.1.1. Comparing and contrasting economic systems in terms of their ability to achieve economic goals

2.1.2. Explaining the benefits of the United States economic system.

2.2. Students understand the fundamental characteristics of the United States economic system. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.2.1. Explaining how businesses, including sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and franchises, are organized and financed in the U.S. economy

2.2.2. Describing how changes in income, tastes, and preferences, and the prices of substitutes and complements can cause changes in demand

2.2.3. Describing how changes in the number of producers, production costs, or the prices of substitute and complementary products cause changes in supply

2.2.4. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of different market structures, including pure competition, oligopoly, monopoly, and monopolistic competition.

2.3. Students understand that government actions and policies, including taxes, spending, and regulations influence the operation of economies. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.3.1. Interpreting measurements of inflation rates and unemployment rates and relating these to the general economic 'health' of the national economy

2.3.2. Explaining the impact of government taxing and spending decisions on specific individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies (for example, social security and Small Business Administration, national debt)

2.3.3. Comparing and contrasting different types of taxes, including progressive, regressive, and proportional taxes

2.3.4. Describing the economic roles of government, such as establishing fiscal policy, providing public goods and services, maintaining competition, generating and using revenues, promoting employment, stabilizing prices, and sustaining reasonable rates of economic growth (for example, Medicaid, and public education)

2.3.5. Describing the effects of specific government regulations on different groups, including consumers, employees, and businesses (for example, unfunded mandates)

2.3.6. Contrasting the concept of customer and consumer.

CO.3. Economics: Students understand the results of trade, exchange, and interdependence among individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies.

3.1. Students understand that the exchange of goods and services creates economic interdependence and change. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.1.1. Giving examples of international differences in resources, productivity, and prices that provide a basis for international trade

3.1.2. Describing the factors that lead to a nation having a comparative advantage in trade

3.1.3. Explaining effects of domestic policies on international trade

3.1.4. Explaining why nations often restrict trade by using quotas, tariffs, and non-tariff barriers to trade (for example, cars entering the U.S. must have a catalytic converter)

3.1.5. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of free trade and restricted trade (Example: Embargo).

3.2. Students understand how a country's monetary system facilitates the exchange of resources. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.2.1. Explaining the costs and benefits of the use of credit

3.2.2. Describing the use of monetary and fiscal policies

3.2.3. Describing how fiscal or monetary policies can affect exchange rates and international trade.

CO.1. Geography: Students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments.

1.1. Students know how to use maps, globes, and other geographic tools to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.1.1. Selecting appropriate maps, map projections, and other graphic representations to analyze geographic problems

1.1.2. Constructing maps using fundamental cartographic principles including translating narratives about places and events into graphic representations

1.1.3. Interpreting maps and other geographic tools, through the analysis of case studies and using data

1.1.4. Using geographic tools to represent and interpret Earth's physical and human systems.

1.2. Students develop knowledge of Earth to locate people, places, and environments. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.2.1. Drawing a complex and accurate map from memory to answer questions about the location of human and physical features

1.2.2. Identifying and locating physical and human features in their own and nearby communities, in the United States, and in regions of the world (for example, rivers, mountains, regions, and countries)

1.2.3. Analyzing maps people make from memory of the same place to determine similarities and differences.

1.3. Students know how to analyze the dynamic spatial organization of people, places, and environments. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.3.1. Analyzing geographic information using a variety of scales--local, national, international (for example, growth issues in Limon, New York City, and Southeast Asia)

1.3.2. Analyzing patterns of distribution and arrangement of settlements

1.3.3. Analyzing patterns and processes of the diffusion of human activities.

CO.2. Geography: Students know the physical and human characteristics of places, and use this knowledge to define and study regions and their patterns of change.

2.1. Students know the physical and human characteristics of places. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.1.1. Analyzing the human and physical characteristics that give a place meaning and significance

2.1.2. Describing the changing human and physical characteristics of places.

2.2. Students know how and why people define regions. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.2.1. Applying the concept of region to organize the study of a geographic issue using multiple criteria

2.2.2. Analyzing changes in regions and recognizing the patterns of those changes (for example, the Caribbean Basin's transition from a major sugarcane producer to a center for tourism).

2.3. Students know how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.3.1. Analyzing why places and regions are important to human identity

2.3.2. Comparing and contrasting how and why different groups in society view places and regions differently

2.3.3. Analyzing the ways places and regions reflect cultural change (for example, old mining towns become tourist centers).

CO.3. Geography: Students understand how physical processes shape Earth's surface patterns and systems.

3.1. Students know the physical processes that shape Earth's surface patterns. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.1.1. Identifying the dynamics of the four basic components of Earth's physical systems: the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere

3.1.2. Explaining the interaction of Earth's physical systems (for example, the interaction of climate and ocean water as exemplified by El Nino)

3.1.3. Explaining the variation in the effects of physical processes across Earth's surface (for example, the effects of wind variations in shaping landforms).

3.2. Students know the characteristics and distributions of physical systems of land, air, water, plants, and animals. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.2.1. Explaining the factors that affect the distribution and characteristics of ecosystems

3.2.2. Explaining the importance of ecosystems in understanding the environment

3.2.3. Analyzing the diversity and productivity of ecosystems.

CO.4. Geography: Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict.

4.1. Students know the characteristics, location, distribution, and migration of human populations. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.1.1. Evaluating trends and effects of world population numbers and patterns

4.1.2. Analyzing the physical and cultural impact of human migration.

4.2. Students know the nature and spatial distribution of cultural patterns. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.2.1. Analyzing how cultures shape the character of a region

4.2.2. Describing the processes of cultural diffusion

4.2.3. Describing the effect of technology on the development and change of cultures.

4.3. Students know the patterns and networks of economic interdependence. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.3.1. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics and distribution of economic systems

4.3.2. Explaining how places of various size function as centers of economic activity

4.3.3. Analyzing factors influencing economic interdependence of countries, including world trade

4.3.4. Analyzing connections among local, regional, and world economies (for example, transportation routes, movement patterns, and market areas)

4.3.5. Analyzing how and why levels of economic development vary among places.

4.4. Students know the processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.4.1. Analyzing the size, arrangement, structure, and function of urban areas

4.4.2. Comparing and contrasting the differing characteristics of settlement in developing and developed countries

4.4.3. Examining how and why large cities grow together.

4.5. Students know how cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.5.1. Analyzing why and how cooperation and conflict are involved in shaping the distribution of social, political, and economic spaces on Earth at different scales (local, national, and international)

4.5.2. Analyzing how differing points of view and self-interests play a role in conflict over territory and resources.

CO.5. Geography: Students understand the effects of interactions between human and physical systems and the changes in meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.

5.1. Students know how human actions modify the physical environment. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.1.1. Analyzing ways the humans depend upon, adapt to, and affect the physical environment

5.1.2. Evaluating ways in which technology has expanded human capacity to modify the physical environment

5.1.3. Explaining the possible global effects of human modification of the physical environment.

5.2. Students know how physical systems affect human systems. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.2.1. Comparing and contrasting how changes in the physical environment can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activity

5.2.2. Identifying and evaluating alternative strategies to respond to constraints placed on human systems by the physical environment (for example, the use of irrigation in arid environments)

5.2.3. Analyzing how humans perceive and react to natural hazards.

5.3. Students know the changes that occur in the meaning, use, location, distribution, and importance of resources. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.3.1. Analyzing how the changing distribution of resources affects the patterns of settlement

5.3.2. Evaluating policies and programs for resource use and management

5.3.3. Analyzing the effects of economic activity in modifying and transforming resources.

CO.6. Geography: Students apply knowledge of people, places, and environments to understand the past and present and to plan for the future.

6.1. Students know how to apply geography to understand the past. What students know and are able to do includes:

6.1.1. Analyzing how changing perceptions of places and environments affect the behavior of people

6.1.2. Analyzing the fundamental role that places and environments have played in history (for example, the Russian winter played an important part in the defeat of Napoleon's army).

6.2. Students know how to apply geography to understand the present and plan for the future. What students know and are able to do includes:

6.2.1. Evaluating a contemporary issue using geography knowledge, skills, and perspectives

6.2.2. Comparing and contrasting how different viewpoints influence the development of policies designed to use and manage Earth's resources.

CO.1. History: Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to organize events and people into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships.

1.1. Students know the general chronological order of events and people in history. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.1.1. Identifying events and people that characterize each of the major eras in United States and world history.

1.2. Students use chronology to organize historical events and people. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.2.1. Reconstructing the time structure and identifying connections found in historical narratives

1.2.2. Using timelines to organize large quantities of historical information, compare different time periods and places, and answer historical questions

1.2.3. Describing how history can be organized, using various criteria (for example, thematically, chronologically, geographically) to group people and events.

1.3. Students use chronology to examine and explain historical relationships. What students know and are able to do includes:

1.3.1. Distinguishing between cause-and-effect relationships and events that happen or occur concurrently or sequentially

1.3.2. Analyzing and explaining cause-and-effect relationships using historical information that is organized chronologically

1.3.3. Using both chronological order and the duration of events to detect and analyze patterns of historical continuity and change.

CO.2. History: Students know how to use the processes and resources of historical inquiry.

2.1. Students know how to formulate questions and hypotheses regarding what happened in the past and to obtain and analyze historical data to answer questions and test hypotheses. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.1.1. Formulating historical hypotheses from multiple, historically objective perspectives, using multiple sources

2.1.2. Gathering, analyzing, and reconciling historical information, including contradictory data, from primary and secondary sources to support or reject hypotheses.

2.2. Students know how to interpret and evaluate primary and secondary sources of historical information. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.2.1. Explaining how historical descriptions, arguments, and judgments can reflect the bias of the author and/or the prevailing ideas of the culture and time period

2.2.2. Interpreting oral traditions and legends as 'histories'

2.2.3. Evaluating data within the social, political, and economic context in which it was created, testing its credibility, and evaluating its bias

2.2.4. Comparing and contrasting the reliability of information received from multiple sources.

2.3. Students apply knowledge of the past to analyze present-day issues and events from multiple, historically objective perspectives. What students know and are able to do includes:

2.3.1. Identifying historical contexts of contemporary issues

2.3.2. Identifying how print and electronic media can affect perspectives regarding historical events

2.3.3. Using historical information to interpret and evaluate decisions or policies regarding contemporary issues.

CO.3. History: Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time.

3.1. Students know how various societies were affected by contacts and exchanges among diverse peoples. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.1.1. Describing the interactions and contributions of the various peoples and cultures that have lived in or migrated, immigrated, or were brought to the area that is now the United States, including African, Asian, European, Latino, and Native American

3.1.2. Describing and explaining the circumstances under which past and current societies have interacted and changed, resulting in cultural diffusion (for example, trade, war, exploration, imperialism, social disruptions, improvements in communication, and transportation)

3.1.3. Explaining the reasons for major periods of immigration to the United States and describing how different segments of U.S. society reacted and changed

3.1.4. Describing the demographic changes resulting from major migrations in history (for example, migration of Chinese south; Islamic nomads into Northern India; Germanic migrations into the Roman Empire; Bantu migrations south; Amer-Indian migrations into Central America; trans-Pacific migration).

3.2. Students understand the history of social organization in various societies. What students know and are able to do includes:

3.2.1. Explaining how societies are maintained when individuals see benefits and fulfill obligations of membership

3.2.2. Analyzing how forces of tradition and change have influenced, altered, and maintained social roles and the social organization of societies throughout history

3.2.3. Explaining how, throughout history, social organization has been related to distributions of privilege and power

3.2.4. Describing how societies have become increasingly complex in responding to the fundamental issues of social organization.

CO.4. History: Students understand how science, technology, and economic activity have developed, changed, and affected societies throughout history.

4.1. Students understand the impact of scientific and technological developments on individuals and societies. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.1.1. Analyzing the major technological turning points in history (for example, agricultural revolution, revolutions in transportation, industrial revolution)

4.1.2. Explaining how the scientific revolution affected how people lived in and viewed the world

4.1.3. Describing and explaining the social and economic changes that resulted from industrialization

4.1.4. Analyzing the impact of rapid developments in areas such as transportation, technology, and telecommunications on individuals and the world today.

4.2. Students understand how economic factors have influenced historical events. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.2.1. Describing how systems of exchange and other economic developments influenced the growth and history of civilizations

4.2.2. Explaining how economic changes led to the growth of towns, cities, and eventually, the modern nation-state

4.2.3. Analyzing the relationship between economic factors and social and political policies throughout United States history

4.2.4. Explaining how the rise and expansion of trade have connected and affected the history of regions of the world

4.2.5. Describing modern historical developments in economic interdependence (for example, the emergence of the Pacific Rim, NAFTA, the European Union), and their impact on individuals and societies.

4.3. Students understand the historical development and know the characteristics of various economic systems. What students know and are able to do includes:

4.3.1. Explaining the historical development of the economic system of the United States

4.3.2. Analyzing the history of the relationship between economics systems and the role of governments throughout history

4.3.3. Describing characteristics of specific economic systems and how these systems have existed in different ways at different times throughout history (for example, manorialism, mercantilism, capitalism, socialism, communism)

4.3.4. Tracing the historical factors that lead to the transition from local and regional economies to a globally interdependent economy.

CO.5. History: Students understand political institutions and theories that have developed and changed over time.

5.1. Students understand how democratic ideas and institutions in the United States have developed, changed, and/or been maintained. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.1.1. Identifying and explaining the role of the ideas expressed in the documents that influenced the development of constitutional democracy (for example, Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact)

5.1.2. Analyzing how the ideas set forth in the Declaration of Independence, Constitution and Bill of Rights, Federalist Papers, and landmark Supreme Court cases affect and operate in the contemporary United States

5.1.3. Identifying and analyzing how historical events have affected the organization of the political system of the United States (for example, the American Revolution, the Civil War, the Mexican War, the Populist and Progressive Movements)

5.1.4. Analyzing how the United States' political system has dealt with various constitutional crises (for example, the Civil War, Alien-Sedition Acts, assassinations, Watergate).

5.2. Students know how various systems of government have developed and functioned throughout history. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.2.1. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics and effects of the various political systems that developed throughout history (for example, republics, representative and direct democracy , feudalism, centralized monarchy, absolutism, principalities, imperial dynasties, tribal kingdoms)

5.2.2. Comparing and contrasting the political traditions of Western Hemisphere nations

5.2.3. Describing the characteristics and ideas of various modern political systems, and giving examples of nations that have used them (for example, democracy, fascism, and communism)

5.2.4. Explaining why nation-states developed throughout the world and became the dominant form of contemporary political organization.

5.3. Students know how political power has been acquired, maintained, used, and/or lost throughout history. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.3.1. Explaining how military conquest and invasion have been used to assume, maintain, and extend political power throughout history

5.3.2. Analyzing the impact of major revolutions on the realignment of political power throughout the modern world

5.3.3. Analyzing how genocide has been used to acquire or maintain political power

5.3.4. Describing how the development, expansion, and collapse of empires throughout history has affected the extension of political power

5.3.5. Describing and analyzing the major events in the expansion of the political power of the United States (for example, the American Revolution, the Louisiana Purchase, the Mexican War)

5.3.6. Analyzing the causes and events of major wars of the contemporary era and the resulting changes in the distribution of political power (for example, World War I, World War II, War in Vietnam, the Russian Invasion of Afghanistan)

5.3.7. Giving examples of former colonies and dependent states throughout the world that have gained independence in the 20th century, and explaining how they have addressed the political issues related to independence.

5.4. Students know the history of relationships among different political powers and the development of international relations. What students know and are able to do includes:

5.4.1. Describing the characteristics of relationships among political entities in the past (for example, monarchies, empires, principalities, city-states, federations)

5.4.2. Explaining how the growth of nationalism affected the relationships among political powers

5.4.3. Describing the eras of United States diplomacy from the Revolution through the modern period (for example, the Monroe Doctrine, the domino theory, detente)

5.4.4. Explaining how the foreign policy of the United States and other nations continues to develop and change

5.4.5. Analyzing the development of and issues associated with worldwide movements and organizations such as the League of Nations, the United Nations, and Amnesty International.

CO.6. History: Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history.

6.1. Students know the historical development of religions and philosophies. What students know and are able to do includes:

6.1.1. Describing basic tenets of world religions that have acted as major forces throughout history including, but not limited to, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism

6.1.2. Tracing the history of how principal world religions and belief systems developed and spread

6.1.3. Explaining how, throughout history, conflicts among peoples have arisen because of different ways of knowing and believing

6.1.4. Describing basic ideas of various schools of philosophy that have affected societies throughout history (for example, rationalism, idealism, liberalism, conservatism).

6.2. Students know how societies have been affected by religions and philosophies. What students know and are able to do includes:

6.2.1. Giving examples of how religion and philosophical beliefs have influenced various aspects of society throughout history

6.2.2. Explaining how, throughout history, the power of the state has been both derived from religious authority and/or in conflict with religious authority

6.2.3. Explaining how the focus on individualism and reason expressed in Western philosophy has affected the history of Western culture, including the history of the United States

6.2.4. Explaining how the beliefs expressed in Eastern philosophy and religion have affected the history of Eastern cultures.

6.3. Students know how various forms of expression reflect religious beliefs and philosophical ideas. What students know and are able to do includes:

6.3.1. Explaining from an historical context why artistic and literary expression have often resulted in controversy

6.3.2. Giving examples of the visual arts, dance, music, theater, and architecture of the major periods of history and explaining what they indicate about the values and beliefs of various societies.

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